Some are hereditary in origin, while others are acquired by environmental influences. One significant condition is known as dyspraxia. According to Bowen and Smith (1999), dyspraxia is an umbrella term for…
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Difficulties arise with this condition, and affects: “intellectual, emotional, physical, language, social and sensory development” (Vickerman, 2008). The concept of this condition had existed more than a century, but its etiology remains unknown (Occupational Therapy Cork, n.d.). A number of theories had been developed; however, none specifically pinpointed its etiology. Although the primary reflex theory had been the initial model for dyspraxia, stimulation of the brain theory better illustrated the developmental learning and coping strategies on dyspraxia clients.
The theories, primitive reflex theory and stimulation of the brain theory had both been based on development and capability of central nervous system (central and peripheral). The grounds for primitive reflex theory (neuromaturational model), as asserted by Mulhall (n.d.), involved the immaturity of neurological reflexes as disruption in nervous system development occurs. Alternatively, the stimulation of the brain theory (dynamic systems model) proposed “the interpretation of sensory inputs by the CNS, and particular actions are selected based on current experience, state of internal and external environment and one’s memory of similar movements” (Floet & Duran, 2010). The general causes for both theories are similar: “hereditary, physical/psychological trauma, movement deprivation, soft neurological damage, perceptual difficulties, obesity or low fitness level” (Hammond, 2005). In primitive reflex model, causes given had been arranged in primary and secondary order—in hierarchal pattern. These had been neatly categorized, and most involved elements directly and indirectly connected with CNS function. On the other hand, stimulation of the brain approach had shown a more complex relationship. The dynamism of the model had been presented in a way in which all factors (causes) had interlinked with each other. This revealed one significant point, “the performance of a motor action
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The children’s progress at schools and in the long run their future life chances are determined by the quality of provisions they get. For all children to benefit, the early year practitioners must be well qualified and have the relevant skills to work with other agencies so as to provide the best for the children.
It is for this reason that education during the said years is crucial, sometimes even dictating the degree by which the student excels in later years of his/her life (Dewey 2000: 89). Therefore, educators must take care that the proper process of development is provided for the child, as well as the best environment for learning.
This is the age for compulsory education for any child in the United Kingdom (Department for Education, 2012). Development, learning and welfare requirements are not contained in the Childcare Act but in other separate Orders. This legislation was implemented from September of 2008.
Consequently the policies as well as the curriculum used in early year’s education in any of the countries in are often different from the ones used in other parts of the United Kingdom. For example, the English system of education basically focuses on the quality of education while the Scottish system has more emphasis towards the breadth of education.
Nowadays, England’s government intervention in early childhood education has changed, and the government is ensuring that children experience significant early year’s education. In the year 1996, England’s government implemented an assessment framework of the early year’s education currently known as Early Learning Goals.
Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) Setting Introduction This paper summarizes facts about the processes that are involved in the implementation of Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and assess the extent to which the early years curriculum it proposes has been implemented.
Such analysis shall be linked to relevant theories mentioned in the course. The EYFS is built upon the foundation that fulfilling the full potential and acquiring the best possible start in life are important to each child, in which the child experiences a secure, happy, and safe childhood.
The practitioner in education has great responsibilities to take care of the special needs of students with learning disabilities in overcoming the various kinds of barriers to learning. It is essential to identify the students with special needs, although the identification of cross-over children is complex.
The dyslexic children usually demonstrate capabilities in some aspects of learning but may have some persistent difficulties that are not common even in the weak students in school. Dyslexic children may perform well but may fail to understand some important aspects in learning such as spelling and pronunciation.
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