Extract of sample "Current Treatments for Children with Autism"
CURRENT TREATMENTS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM Research Topic: Current Treatments for Children with Autism
Abstract: The disability of social communication or interaction is known as Autism. The scientific research findings have clearly shown that such incapability is resulted from nervous system disorder of human physiology. As the spinal chord, brain and other parts of human nervous system do not function properly, ultimately it prevents sensory organs of a human body from properly responding to signals from external world. Compared to adults, signs of this disease are more frequently observed among children. Adequate support both from family and education system helps an affected to develop his/her condition. Recently, several scientific experiments and researches have elaborated the scope of treating children with autism more effectively. The paper aims at reflecting over those current treatment methods that would help a child with autism to lead a normal life.
Autism, being a nervous system disorder, more frequently observed among children, leads the affected to certain behavioral abnormalities among which isolation and problems to communicate with the society are most conspicuous traits. The scientific observation of the disease have revealed the fact that despite a child remains physically perfect but since his/her childhood certain signs of behavioral abnormality become explicit, such as “qualitative impairment in reciprocal social interaction”, including poor personal relationship, lack of eyes gaze and physical gestures, “impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication,” which is indicated from lack of spontaneous reaction, perception of language or participation in a communication process, “restricted repertoire of activities and interests,” which involves repeated physical movements (Frith, p.9). A child suffering from this problem is under need of strict and caring supervision. However, unfortunately, lack knowledge and proper education among people leads them to believe that children with behavioral traits generated from autism are actually evil embodied as the signs of this disease, such as, social isolation, bad personal relationship and lack of communication are traditionally considered as indications of devilish possession. Naturally, children with autism become subjects of harsh treatment from people around them and ultimately the entire situation is worsened for victims of this disease.
In addition to this factor, situation for children with autistic problem becomes even more complicated because the biblical doctrine of Original Sin suggests children are considered to possess huge potential for both salvation and sin. It is the duty of parents that they lead their children to “higher self-consciousness” (Bunge, p. 17). Parents, obviously with an intense desire to purify their children ignore the actual problem they are facing and inflict harsh mental and physical abuse to cure their children. However, it quite regretting to see that quest of elders for higher salvation and spiritual ascent has made them ignore one important lesson of the Bible, which talks about taking extreme good care of children and protect them despite they show different behavioral approaches, “How think ye? If a man have an hundred sheep, and one of them be gone astray, doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and goeth into the mountains, and seeketh that which is gone astray? … Even so it is not the will of your Father which is in heaven, that one of these little ones should perish” (Matthew 18: 12-14). Looking at the condition of children with autism and their treatment from their parents it seems that though “Father in heaven” is quite concerned but reflection of that concern has actually not occurred in real parents. Apart from receiving proper support from parents, children with autism must also have adequate support from their educational system and importance of this aspect has been elaborated in the book, Human Exceptionality: School, Family, and Community, where the authors have provided special emphasis on instructional leadership for the purpose of strengthening special education process and stress on respecting diversity so that students feel relaxed and free to learn in their own ways (Hardman, Drew and Egan, 2007). Here follows five important articles that clearly show the kind of advancement is happening in the field of treating autism so that children with this disease can be provided with a bright future.
Graupner, T.D. and Sallows, G.O. (2005). “Intensive Behavioral Treatment for Children With Autism: Four-Year Outcome and Predictors “.American Journal on Mental Retardation: Vol. 110, No. 6, pp. 417–438. : This article shows results of the experiment that has been conducted over 24 children with autistic behavioral traits. This experiment went on consecutively for four years and the children were treated in every aspect of their behavioral drawbacks. Despite the fact that these children had to follow a scheduled time table during this experiment but they there was no restriction on their execution of actions. Result of the experiment shows that 48% of the children have shown considerable development in their area of drawbacks. This article is an excellent proof of the aspect that with proper care from parents and education system children with autism can improve their social responsiveness to a great extent.
Shea, S. Turgay, A. Carroll, A. Schulz, M. Orlik, H. Smith, I. and Dunbar, F. (18th October 2004). “Risperidone in the Treatment of Disruptive Behavioral Symptoms in Children With Autistic and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders”. Pediatrics. doi:10.1542/peds.2003-0264-F. : The experiment elaborates distribution of risperidone, a medicine, among 79 children ranging from age group of 5 to 12 years. Final result of the experiment shows that to solve the problems of autistic disorder risperidone is a good option but at the same time children must also be supported adequately by their surrounding.
Rogers, S.J. (1998). “Empirically Supported Comprehensive Treatments for Young Children With Autism”. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, Vol. 27, 1998: Author this article has identified autism as “a severe, chronic developmental disorder” (Rogers, 1998) and if not treated in time, can result in “lifelong disability for most persons” (Rogers, 1998). Through this article the author has discussed advanced process of treatment for people suffering from autism and provided considerable stress on adequate support from surrounding.
Lovaas, O.I. (1993). “The development of a treatment-research project for developmentally disabled and autistic children”. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 1993,26,617-630. : This article reflects over the kind of behaviorist approaches that a child, suffering from autism, can reflect. At the same time author of this article has also discussed the ways, which can be taken to control self-injurious behavior of an autistic child. The author, through his research, has shown that home based treatment play a very important role in curing the problems of an autistic child and also provided a great deal of stress on the same.
Aldred, C. Green, J. and Adams, C. (2004). “A new social communication intervention for children with autism: pilot randomised controlled treatment study suggesting effectiveness”. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45:8 (2004), pp 1420–1430: In this article, the authors have discussed role of parents in treating children with autistic symptoms. At the same time, the process of social communication also has received considerable attention from the authors. They have emphasized over the aspect that autistic patients should not be made conscious about their behavioral drawbacks; rather they must be provided with equal support so that they feel themselves normal as any other person.
Bunge, M.J. (2001). The child in Christian thought. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Caroll, R. and Prickett, S. (1998). The Bible: Authorized King James Version. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Frith, U. (2003). Autism: explaining the enigma. Edition: 2. New York: Wiley-Blackwell
Hardman, M.L. Drew, C.J. and Egan, M.W. (2007). Human Exceptionality: School, Family and Community. Edition: 9. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Aldred, C. Green, J. and Adams, C. (2004). “A new social communication intervention for children with autism: pilot randomised controlled treatment study suggesting effectiveness”. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45:8 (2004), pp 1420–1430, available at: http://www.uth.tmc.edu/clinicalneuro/institute/2005/Ellis-Weismer%27s%20pdf%27s/aldred_green.pdf. Accessed on: 31st January 2010
Graupner, T.D. and Sallows, G.O. (2005). “Intensive Behavioral Treatment for Children With Autism: Four-Year Outcome and Predictors “.American Journal on Mental Retardation: Vol. 110, No. 6, pp. 417–438. Available at: http://aaidd.allenpress.com/aamronline/?request=get-document&doi=10.1352%2F0895-8017%282005%29110[417:IBTFCW]2.0.CO%3B2. Accessed on: 31st January 2010
Lovaas, O.I. (1993). “The development of a treatment-research project for developmentally disabled and autistic children”. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 1993,26,617-630. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1297900/pdf/jaba00014-0210.pdf. Accessed on: 31st January 2010
Rogers, S.J. (1998). “Empirically Supported Comprehensive Treatments for Young Children With Autism”. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, Vol. 27, 1998. Available at: http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=LvjdvG7KrpnbnJXfXZ50TgTxtdmnh0mrtXJw2S7CxvJpJPyJBhVh!-1679437133!1680139891?docId=81026430. Accessed on: 31st January 2010
Shea, S. Turgay, A. Carroll, A. Schulz, M. Orlik, H. Smith, I. and Dunbar, F. (18th October 2004). “Risperidone in the Treatment of Disruptive Behavioral Symptoms in Children With Autistic and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders”. Pediatrics. doi:10.1542/peds.2003-0264-F. Available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/peds.2003-0264-Fv1. Accessed on: 31st January 2010
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