Artical report - Article Example

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The diversity in human behavior has always been a special area of interest for philosophers and behavioral scientists since early dawn of the human civilization to modern times. Starting from early intellectual discourse till recent era, a huge amount of debate and controversies…
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Article Report The diversity in human behavior has always been a special area of interest for philosophers and behavioral scientists since early dawn of the human civilization to modern times. Starting from early intellectual discourse till recent era, a huge amount of debate and controversies have occurred regarding proper realization of human behavioral aspects but fragmentation in this field has emerged as a barrier when it comes to “a more complete understanding of human behavior” (Stark 131). Thus, in his article “Driven”, Gary Stark has made an attempt to unify these diversities with an intention to develop a “unified theory of human behavior” (Stark 131). The author has reflected that such theory of human behavior should encompass within its scope manifold issues, including layers of analysis from individual to organizational and social, harmony with current understanding of social and biological sciences, ability for empirical testing, universal cultural applicability and lucidity of the theory so that it can be taught and used easily (Stark 131).
The author, in the context of arguing about the importance of a unified theory of human behavior, has adopted a quite well structured form and also has provided considerable focus over four major driving forces that mainly determine nature of human behavior. However, understanding the driving forces and their role in construction of human behavior would not have been easy unless prior to the section he has provided a brief explanation about “Evolution of the brain” (Stark 131). In this section the author has shown that evolution of human brain is mainly responsible to determine behavior of individuals and their choice of actions, “…evolution has selected several innate skills for human including habitat selection, food selection, danger awareness, intuitive psychology, orientation, justice, and an ability to remember important people” (Stark 132). The limbic part of human brain specifies and differentiates “incoming sensory messages” (Stark 132) and human beings, consecutively, also respond to those impulses depending on their needs. The author’s emphasis on this functional aspect of brain explains the necessity for human beings in the context of acquiring, learning, bonding and defending themselves.
Aftermath, the author has explained the four drives, which he considers as the main forces in determining human behavior. The D1 or Drive to Acquire is the first force that determines instinct of human beings in the context of acquiring certain basic needs, namely, “food, shelter, sexual consummation, and water” (Stark 133). At the same time, basic rational of economic models, which suggests that drive to acquire develops “rational pursuit of self-interest” (Stark 133) has also attracted attention of the author, though he has not supported such observation entirely. The author also has pointed out that D1 initiates insatiable quest for material possessions of human beings and if this drive can be positively directed, it leads to cooperation (Stark 133). The Drive to Bond or D2 is the next force, which is developed due to universality of moral approaches and it in consequence it gives birth to adaptive cooperation among human beings (Stark 133). Interaction of an individual with social institutions is resulted from D2 and enhances the moral aspects of humanity. The author has also pointed out that unless this drive is properly directed, it will lead to grave crimes against humanity such as sabotage or genocide (Stark 134). The Drive to Learn (D3) and the Drive to Defend (D4) are two others forces that direct human beings to enhance their knowledge as well as development of inquisitiveness for the unknown and defend their knowledge, achievements in life and material possessions, simultaneously (Stark 134-135).
Finally, the author reflects that these four innate drives are responsible for diversity in human behavior in both individual and cultural context. His well structured logical analysis helps him to establish the fact that each of these driving forces is independent and conflict between those give birth to diversity in case of executing free human will in a particular context (Stark 135). However, in an organizational scenario, diversity of human behavior often creates problems for the authority in case of managing its potential but if it can properly be handled, an organization becomes successful and receives accomplishments, triumphing over limitations of individual capacity (Stark 136).
Work Cited
Stark, Gary. “Driven.” source: Lawrence, Paul R. and Nohria, Nitin. Driven: How Human Nature
Shapes Our Choices. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 2002. Read More
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