Since then, only a few institutional reforms had occurred. Most of these reforms were aimed at the function and role of the European Parliament. In 1979, direct elections to the European Parliament were introduced. In 1987, the…
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Consequently, the European Parliament has gained sufficient power to be equal in power, with the European Council. The latter consists of representatives from the Member States2.
The Amsterdam Treaty of 1993, served to further increase the power of the EP, in respect of its decision – making process. These reforms were initiated, in order to address democratic deficit in the law – making procedures of the European Commission. In 1993, the Maastricht Treaty was adopted, in the meeting of the Intergovernmental Conference. This Treaty is also known as the Treaty on European Union. It introduced the complex co – decision procedure and provided the right of veto to the European Parliament, which it can exercise, under certain circumstances3.
In the 1996-1997 round of the Intergovernmental Conference, the issue of democratic deficit was once again taken up for discussion and it was decided to make efforts to address it. This meeting resulted in widespread reforms to various aspects of the European Community, and the role of the European Parliament was also discussed in this meeting. Moreover, these changes supplanted the decisions taken under the cooperation procedure, with the new and simplified system of co-decision procedure4.
The European Parliament can now determine the drafting of EU budget and statutes. The EP has enacted the legislation relating to the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the EU. It has also acquired the power to enact laws that protect the environment and consumers. Furthermore, the European Parliament is empowered to approve or dismiss the European Commission5.
Subsequent to the first direct elections in 1979, the European Parliament took up the onerous task of institutional reform. The purpose behind this initiative was to realise the dream of the founding members of the ECSC and the EEC. These founders had aimed at establishing an international entity that would truly
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Moreover, it is an economic and political union of 27 European countries (Oxford Dictionary of English, 2008) and it operates though a fusion of “supranational” independent institutions and intergovernmental decisions negotiated among its members (Anneli, 2005, p.205).
The court has 27 judges drawn from the states. Eight Advocates –General, assist these judges. When hearing cases, it normally has panels of three, five, or thirteen judges. Its main role is to ensure that the law is observed, when interpreting and applying treaties of the European Union.
The EU constantly underscores commitment to establishing a cosmopolitan European identity.1 Depending on the source, there are about 12-15 million Muslims living within the member states of the European Union and this number is anticipated to rise to 23 million by the year 2015.
The European Union brings together several countries within Europe thus developing a common market necessitated by the use of a single currency. As an economic body, the European Union unifies the European market thus permitting goods and services to flow freely by permitting investors from member states to invest in any country.
Sionaidh Douglas-Scott also said that "the ... concept of federalism does not feel quite right as an explanation of the EU which. ... is too sui generis, too complex, too multidimensional to fit into any such categorization".
In the following essay, we will try to discuss and analyze these statements with reference to Treaties, case law of the European Court of Justice and contemporary political and academic opinion, in order to understand how the European Union is organized.
However, this discontentment of the voters towards a Constitution shall not wipe out the progressive efforts that the European Union made to promote equality between human beings throughout the years. In 1993, the twelve members agreed in Copenhagen2 on values that each state should respect: Democracy, State of Rights, Human Rights, and Market Economy.
These developments are the concept of “acte clair” and the ECJ’s ruling in Folgia v Novello. The following discussion examines these developments in the context of Jane’s particular problem and expalins