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Freedom and Determinism - Book Report/Review Example

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According to my judgment, idea of dualism in eternity and time which also give rise to dualism in spirit and matter has been one of the most important throughout history of understanding change and its nature. It developed over a period of time and different realms of knowledge…
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Download file to see previous pages Ancient religions characterized Gods with the forces of harmony and order while evil is the source of chaos(Kirk & Raven, 1966).This idea modified by Plato into metaphysical dualism of eternity and time who characterized order as real and change as illusion. This perception also gave rise to the idea of dualism in matter and spirit as it associated spirit as eternal and matter as the temporal(Edman,1956).Platonic perceptions influenced classical and medieval times of western thinking and even Christianity elevated eternal realm over temporal realm(Tarnas,1991). However, concept of dualism is also part of eastern religious perceptions, i.e., Hinduism and Buddhism. These religions also emphasized the eternal life and associate life as temporal and a journey towards the eternal realm which is higher and determined to be the real and lasting one (Smith, 1958; Noss, 1999).
This idea is important as according to Tarnas (1991) it influenced western thought and engaged it over a period of time which contributed to the negligence of time and change study. Religion has always been a crucial part of human belief system and this Platonic dualism occupied some aspects of it. The belief on the existence of higher realm and considering it the ultimate reality influenced human life greatly. It urged human societies to think in terms of future and give life a meaning which has higher level of purpose instead of just living a life giving birth and then embrace death. In Hinduism and Buddhism soul is associated as the ultimate reality and body as the temporal one which is the means of travel from lower to higher reality. Human life is a part of this process and future in this world has no value as in reality it lays outside this world. Soul travels upward through reincarnation and then the whole cycle of life ends in death which leads to Nirvana and eternal ones. This idea leads to ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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