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In spite of its minimalism, a Turing machine could be modified to reproduce the logic of some computer algorithm, as well as this machine is mainly useful in illuminating the operations of a CPU within of a computer (Suber, 2002). This paper will present deep analysis of the different functionalities, operations, and uses of Turing machine.
According to Weisstein (2009) the concept of the Turing machine was initially presented by Alan Turing in 1937. He also invented the initial Turing machine that was presented like an idealized model intended for mathematical computation. A Turing machine composed of a line of cells acknowledged as a "tape" that can be moved back as well as forth. In a Turing machine there is an active component "head" that has a feature acknowledged as "state" that is capable to transform the attribute recognized as "color" of the active cell below it, and also a set of commands for how the head needs to be adjusted by the active cell as well as shift the tape. In addition, the machine can transform the color of the Turing machine active cell at any step. Also, it can transform the position of the head, and moving the tape one step towards right or left (Weisstein, Turing Machine, 2009; Sipser, 2005).
Copeland (2000), discusses about Universal Turing Machine (UTM), which is a Turing machine that is capable to replicate other Turing machine. An additional mathematically-oriented description by a related "universal" nature was presented by Alonzo Church, whose effort on lambda calculus linked with Turing in a prescribed hypothesis of computation identified as the Church–Turing theory. The theory presents that a Turing machines certainly holds the informal view of useful technique in mathematics as well as in logic, and also offers an accurate explanation of a mechanical procedure or algorithm (Copeland, 2000).
According to Aanderaa (2006), a
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In this test, if after a series of questions and answers, the human interrogator could not tell, on the basis of the respondents’ answers, which is the human and which is the machine, then the machine is said to have passed the test, and consequently is considered to be intelligent.
Some considered these acts as done by soul while others regarded humors as responsible. The advent of science, especially medical science, had made these theorists to take a sharp turn in the direction of brain as the source and control room of entire human body.
With this in mind, it would seem that the human mind is very much like a supercomputer, making numerous assessments and finding out answers to dilemmas using different analogies, formulae, as well as taking into account which among these options would produce the best result.
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The Turing Test which is named after him is the most significant contribution he has made in the world of modern computers. Though there are many who has opposed this test, it has undoubtedly a turning point in today's world.
According to the essay, Turing described the test as follows. There are three components to it: a person, a machine and an interrogator. The interrogator is in a separate room from the machine and the computer. The interrogator is allowed to communicate with both the machine and computer and puts up questions to them.
The source of this computation may be either an electrical, mechanical or an optical circuit. Each one of them actually serves to perform the calculation task that is at hand irrespective of the way it is achieved.
Alan Turing is referred to as the
In the essay, Pinker states how intelligence and rules go hand in hand. Rules provide a base to judge intelligence. He provides the explanation to the computational theory of mind by drawing comparisons of the human
ia to pull together, preserve, and offers the first hand information to readers about the events of September 11, 2001 ambush in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania and the aftermath civic reactions to the attacks.
The Archive’s main focus is the event of September 11, the
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