Psychology assigment 4 - Assignment Example

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The secretion of estrogen in girls and testosterone in boys during this time stimulates the development of sexual characteristics and reproductive maturity varying from person to…
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Psychology assigment 4
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Biological Changes in Males & Females during Puberty The time of growth during which changes in body size and proportions occur is known as adolescence. The secretion of estrogen in girls and testosterone in boys during this time stimulates the development of sexual characteristics and reproductive maturity varying from person to person; these biological changes occurring during adolescence is known as puberty. Puberty is the result of functional and morphological transformations in organ systems like blood circuit, central nervous system, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, gonads and adrenal glands observed in both sexes.
The hypothalamus in the body produces gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) that travels to the pituitary glands through the capillaries helping to stimulate the production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In response to the FSH and LH the gonads or sex glands increase the production of sex hormones estrogens and androgens (testosterone), while adrenal glands also produce androgens. The production of androgens is increased by secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in pituitary gland.
The estrogen and testosterone released by gonads bring biological changes and help in development of breasts in girls and testicular development in boys. Other androgens result in changes of body proportion and function of organ systems. The puberty onset results in physical development, hormonal changes and sexual maturation which vary both within and between the sexes. During puberty girls experience pubic hair, breast development and growth of reproductive system. Girls increase their height and changes in body proportions while beginning their menarche by age 11-16.
Boys experience changes later than girls involving pubic hair, enlargement of penis, growth of scrotum and development of reproductive system. The height increases while body proportions and body hair changes experiencing voice changes and spermarche.
Development of Hypothetical-Deductive Thought and Abstract Thinking in Adolescent Cognitive Development
The adolescent’s cognitive development determines the ability of a person to learn, think, reason and adapt to the environment. Piaget’s study of cognitive development theory is mainly based on three principles namely: assimilation, accommodation and equilibration; while his belief that cognitive development occurred in four stages that are universal as every person passes through all these stages in same order. These four stages are: sensorimotor development, preoperational period, concrete operations and formal operations.
Each stage is corresponded to certain age but there could be variations as some children enter stage earlier while others enter later. Sensorimotor period lasts from birth to 2 years where babies think by using senses and motor skills involving understanding of objects, adapting to environment with reflexes and developing object permanence. Preoperational stage lasts from 2 to 6 years where children’s thinking becomes language based and symbolic. Children during this stage struggle with egocentrism, a tendency of child to think from their own point.
Concrete thinking is more logical lasting from 7 to 11 years of age. The child considers multiple aspects of problem to solve it, understands reversibility, gains ability of serialization, classification and delimitate egocentrism by understanding other persons perspective. Formal Operational state is the fourth and final stage of cognitive development commencing at age of 11 years to 16 years and characterized by development of hypothetical deductive reasoning and ability to think about abstract ideas (abstract thinking).
According to Piaget’s experiments formal operational adolescents tend to determine all possibilities and systematically classify factors individually, observe the results aptly and lead to an appropriate conclusions which differs them from concrete operational children. Individuals in this age engage in hypothetical deductive reasoning that is the reasoning that uses deductive logic and involves in generating a hypothesis, stating and considering the implications of the hypothesis, testing the hypothesis and reaching final conclusions whether this hypothesis works or have more hypotheses.
Children tend to gain abstract thinking during this formal operational stage that can be deductive reasoning that is reasoning from general statements or principles that lead to conclusions or inductive reasoning that is reasoning from any experience or facts to general conclusion. Thus the adult’s intellectual abilities starts to improve during this stage based on knowledge gained and experience.

1) Lisa Oakley, “Cognitive Development”, 2004, p.15, <> 2) Richard A. Griggs, “Psychology: A Concise Introduction”, 2008, p. 228, <> 3) Susan Bentham, “A teaching assistants guide to child development and psychology in the classroom”, 2003, p.9, <> 4) Adolescent Biological & Physiological Development, <> 5) Notebook, 1993, <> 6) Celia B. Fisher, Richard M. Lerner, “Encyclopedia of applied developmental science”, 2005, p. 894, <> 7) Theresa Kyle, Terri Kyle , “Essentials of pediatric nursing”, 2007, p.184, <>Read More
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