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5). Looking at the lens of criminological theories, their essential applications could be primarily seen in the creation of various social policies which are mostly grounded on the bases of effective criminological theories.
According to Dr. Paul Knepper (2007), various criminological theories—which basically resulted from the instituted questions regarding crimes—have led to the institution of a diversified array of policy implications—i.e., social policy, which concerns social welfare (p. 3). Most of the different criminological theories contributed significantly to the institution of social policy which grounded on the very core of such criminological theories. In fact, there were different social policies (and policy implications) which were formed and directed to addressing the problems of crimes stipulated and made essential by the different criminological theories. Education policy, for example, has been one of the major social policies, which has significant relationship to crime reduction (p. 83).
Moreover, social policy creation through the basis of criminological theories is likely to proliferate in various strata with which various policy programs are implemented prior to the assertions embedded in each criminological theory. As being holistically stipulated in the account of Eric See (2004), the variously identified criminological theories significantly have their corresponding social policies presented and implemented. Cases in point are the programs which yielded solutions and alternatives in addressing crimes grounding essentially on Choice and Deterrence theory of criminology. Choice theory stipulates that it is the very choice of an individual to engage him/herself in and commit crime. This criminal act should therefore be responsibly blamed to the individual who performed the act and not to
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In fact, it has been approved by majority of criminologists that, no single aspect can be mentioned as the final reason of criminal behavior. A vast majority of researchers claim that, crime is a symptom of wider malaise. It is upon this faith that most of the studies have evolved with specific time, trying to establish the root causes of crime, and to find the reliable solution for the control and prevention of crimes.
Historical and political developments further serve to reinforce these traditions, with research attitudes towards discrimination being perhaps the most self-evident of this phenomenon. For example, race has always been a particularly sticky issue in a number of areas, particularly in criminology where research must take care not to highlight issues that may serve to aggravate racial discrimination.
Numerous theories have come up with the main aim of explaining the causes of crime. Over the years, these theories have been modified to explain the causes of crime comprehensively. Criminologists aim at reducing the incidences, as well as the level of crime taking place.
However, biological theory of crime advanced by Cesare Lomboso has been the most controversial especially as pertain how the theory connects genetics and criminal behaviors (Namazi, 2010). According to Lomboso the farther of biological theory of crime, genetic factors are responsible for criminal behavior among individuals (van Dusen and Mednick, 1983).
It is must be noted, however, that positivism is not a monolithic theory. Quite the contrary, there are positivist variants which offer different explanations for crime, which thereby suggest different types of responses to crime (both proactive and reactive), and which extend responsibility to other individuals and to society.
The first theory is the Rational Choice Theory. It states that a person is a reasonable being that is capable of weighing the pros and cons of a situation which can then affect his or her decision later on. This theory is based upon the Classical school of though that a person ultimately decides what actions they can take advantage of and what situations can they avoid.
ty safety, while terrorism is a relatively new concern after hijackers, members of the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda, used planes to conduct suicide attacks that resulted to around 3000 people dead last September 11, 2001. Technological developments also threaten public
This kind of behavior can be linked to the social learning theory of criminology that explains on people committing crime through the people they are associated with (Siegel 229). In this case, the Kansas University (KU) students are a product of