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This paper will explore these and ultimately examine the relationship between incarceration and crime.
The positive change in the prison statistics in the state of New York is attributed to the changes and reforms in the law enforcement policies of the state. The state has led reforms and innovations particularly in regard to the reformatory characteristic of its incarceration policy and its introduction of the modern parole. Reform was forced out of the policymakers because in the first half of 1990s, tightening revenues threaten the budget of correctional facilities and that the state correction facilities were then already overcrowded and still more prisoners are awaiting assignments. And so, one of the first acts as governor of the former Governor George Pataki was to loosen laws on minor repeat offenders in order to help decrease prison population and help ease the pressure on the correction system. (Clear, Cole and Reisig 15) Then the state legislature amended and relaxed the so-called Rockefeller Drug Laws, which made New York one of the strictest states when it came to policing drug offenders. Indeed, starting the latter half of the 1990s onwards, the prison commitments steadily dropped prompting the state to close some prison facilities and save millions of taxpayers’ money.
The New York experience highlighted the requirement of effective prison policy – one that is characterized by a set of graduated options that can be tailored to specific situations. This led New York policymakers and criminal justice planners to one of its new policies - the use of a variety of alternative sentencing mechanisms, which include: residential community corrections; community service and alternatives to corrections; and, probation. (Mumpower and Ilchman 544) All these alternatives are considered to be less punitive and incapacitative than state prison, but in graduated degrees. Changes in law enforcement policies included the police making fewer
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The article takes a deeper look at the criminal justice system as the cohort of processes, agencies, and codes established by the governing authorities to control transgressions of law and enforce penalties on the persons who breach laws. In USA, there is no solitary criminal justice framework but rather numerous similar but distinct systems work together.
CJS is practiced in law enforcement, in the criminal defence field and in private security organisations around the world. In some organizations, it is used informally as part of an investigator's work. In others, it is applied by uniquely trained personnel who are commonly called 'intelligence analysts', 'crime analysts', or 'criminal information analysts'.
Processing data, however, is a question open to debate based on prevailing law enforcement thought, power balances between constituents and, not least, advances in technology. The impact of data collection, storage, retrieval, and analysis on criminal justice system cannot in fact be overemphasized given unparalleled advances in Internet technologies and computer-managed systems.
The percentage f arrests is 64.2% as against 47.2% in Germany, 40.1% in France, 35.4% in England, and 20.9% in the United States. Out f 3,371,519 suspects in 1986, 73.4% were referred to trial courts, 17.5% to family courts, and 9.1% were exempted from prosecution by the measure called "suspension f prosecution" taken by public prosecutors.
Different groups in the society have different and often incompatible interests in the society which give rise to conflicts and eventually results in the incidence of crime. To quote Emile Durkheim," A society composed of persons with angelic qualities would not be free from violations of the norms of that society (Paranjape, 2005, p.3)i".
In January of 2005, the Crime and Justice Survey found that nearly a quarter (24%) of males aged 14-17 were either serious or prolific offenders, committing crimes such as car theft, burglary and violent assaults at least six times (and usually far more) in the previous year.
Thus, there is a need to develop insights on how it can remain relevant and effective in society (Wall & Williams, 2007). Subsequently, this valuation of criminal justice systems is the reason for the varying perspectives and opinion. One of the most critical debates existing is between due process and crime control models.
New York City has always been a cause of concern in terms of crime as is the case with any other leading city in the US. The city police department is known for wrongful convictions, corruption and forced confessions (Greene, 2006, p. 965). But the recent reforms
Considering the various definitions posted above, it is evident that crime is forbidden and attracts punishment as stipulated in the law. Some of the activities that are unacceptable throughout the world and therefore fall within the boundaries of crime are theft, rape, and murder.
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