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The proposal presented here is for a research on the factors that help employees get motivated and the managers in motivating the employees to help increase the productivity of the companies as well. A company will be chosen to study how the managers are able to improve the…
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Master of Business Administration (MBA) Research Proposal: Employee Motivation - How Managers Can Effectively Motivate Their Employees Table of contents
Master of Business Administration (MBA) 0
Research Proposal: Employee Motivation - How Managers Can Effectively Motivate Their Employees 0
0
Table of contents 1
Abstract 3
Introduction 4
Background 4
Aim of study 5
Research questions 5
Literature review 5
About Tesco 5
Morgan’s Metaphors: 6
Henry Fayol’s 14 Management Principles 7
The Michigan Model 7
The Human Resource Cycle 8
Employee Motivation: 8
Research Methodology 9
Research Paradigm 10
Research Design 11
Chosen Methodology 11
Data Sources 11
Data Collection Methods 12
Data Analysis and Conclusion 12
Activities and Implementation Timeline 13
References 15
Bibliography 17
Abstract
The proposal presented here is for a research on the factors that help employees get motivated and the managers in motivating the employees to help increase the productivity of the companies as well. A company will be chosen to study how the managers are able to improve the motivation of the employees and bring out more effective productivity. The research will be a combination of review of the literature that has already been presented in the past and a primary research to involve a questionnaire to be filled by the employees of Tesco and an interview for the managers. The main benefits of this topic and research is that it allows the managers of the 21st centaury understand how to motivate their employees based on the various theories that have been developed in the past. The main aim of this research is to use the knowledge gained from the past theories and to provide a clearer view to managers to help them be able to incorporate these theories into the current time in the corporate world. The research will also contain recommendations based on the various theories however will be a newer approach to fit into the current corporate world.
Introduction
Managing people at work is an essential element of any business. Human Resources Management is a specialised function by itself and requires to be managed with special care and attention. Employees are an asset to any company. Human resource management deals with managing these assets. Human resource management deals with ensuring that all the needs of employees are met and that the company receives the best from the employees. It is very important for the business to ensure that the employees that have been recruited are able to perform the duties both effectively and efficiently. The key ideas for managing people revolve around Psychology, Sociology, Unitarism, Pluralism, Contingency theory and Ethics (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004).
Background
There are a number of different strands of thoughts in the field of motivation of employees. There have been several scholars who have developed a number of theories about the optimum ways to manage people at work. The dissertation will include the theories of many that will be discussed further.
The management theories to a great extent provide a clear ground work of this provides a steady base for this study. This is majorly because it is essential to understand the theories of management before moving into the motivational theories. Management theories are in a number if ways the first and most essential elements of business which every manager will require to know and understand to be able to successfully lead a team. It is essential to realise the importance of these theories for every manager (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004). Hence to provide a clear and complete understanding of how managers can motivate employees, and how they manage people, the various thoughts in this field has also been discussed. Also from the interviews that have been conducted, the importance of the management principles has also been noted. Therefore these theories have been discussed in this study (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004).
Aim of study
The aim of this study is to understand the various theories about managing people. The main method of research is a secondary research that will include the various theories developed by scholars over the years. Since the main aim of this dissertation is to understand the various management principles and aspects of managing employees within an organisation, different theories relating to employee motivation as well will be discussed.
Research questions
The objectives for the research are extracted from the literature reviewed and listed.
1. Role of managers in employee motivation; steps managers can take to motivate employees
2. Importance of managing people within an organisation
3. Understanding the importance and effects of employee needs on performance
4. Understanding the Human Resource Cycle
Literature review
The management theories to a great extent provide a clear ground work of this provides a steady base for this study. This is majorly because it is essential to understand the theories of management before moving into the motivational theories. Management theories are in a number if ways the first and most essential elements of business which every manager will require to know and understand to be able to successfully lead a team (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004).
About Tesco
Tesco capitalized on this demand through a stock market flotation in 1947. This gave the company access to significant amounts of capital, which it used to rapidly buy up rival stores, removing the competition and also giving itself economies of scale to help dominate its market (Kotler and Keller, 2006). This acquisition based growth continued into the 1970s, when Tesco began strategically constructing new stores in an attempt to completely cover the UK. As part of this, Tesco also began to diversify, opening its first petrol station in 1974 and expanding into various non food operations. Founded in 1924, Tesco has indeed come a long way since its first-opened store in Burnt Oak, Edgware. Today, 79 years after it was founded by Sir Jack Cohen, TESCO is Britain’s leading food retailer.
Morgan’s Metaphors:
There are various ways of looking at organisations as discussed by Morgan. Morgan distinguishes eight different metaphors of organisations. Each of the metaphors highlights different aspects of the organisations. The eight metaphors are clearly seen in the diagram below.
The metaphors highlight different aspect of organisations and are classified into three main heads namely: a) Machine group, b) Organism Group, and c) Mind Group, each of which focus on a particular aspect of the business (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004).
The Machine Group contains only the Machine metaphor; the organism focuses on the dynamic relationship of the organisation and environment and contains the organism metaphor and the Flux and transformation metaphor. Finally the Mind metaphor contains two sub groups: a) one which concentrates on the relationship between the minds of individuals and the organisation as a social construct. This contains the brain metaphor, the culture metaphor and the psychic prison metaphor, and b) this group focuses on the mechanism of coordination and power plays. This includes the political system metaphor, and the instrument of domination metaphor (Gazendam, 1993). This theory allows a better understanding and provides a base for the study of the motivational theories.
Henry Fayol’s 14 Management Principles
Having discussed Morgan’s theory of management, now we move on to Henry Fayol’s management theory. Both these theories allow creating a base for this research and in some terms forming the ground work of this entire research. Henry Fayol a French engineer is considered as a key contributor to the administrative school of thought. He has built his theories on personal observations and experiences. In 1911, Taylor first published ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’, from which in 1916 Fayol examined the nature of administration and management based on the experience from the mining organization. Both Taylor as well Fayol were under the impression and argued about all organizations having a set of principles that help the organizations to operate and administrate efficiently. It was now that Fayol developed the five primary functions of management, namely: a) planning, b) organising, c) commanding, d) coordinating and e) Controlling (Fayol, 1949, 1987). Recent writer have used this as the basis for their study and have developed the functions to be four main rather than five main. These functions are divided into a) planning, b) organising, c) leading, and d) controlling (Daft, 2005). Fayol’s 14 principles have been discussed in his book General and Industrial Management in 1949. Fayol has suggested the importance of unity of command - a concept of one supervisor for each person. He also suggested that management is a universal human activity that plays an equally important role in both families as well as organizations. Fayol has been regarded as the father of modern operational management theory (George, 1968). Fayol’s theories have become a universal part of the modern management concepts and his theories have also been compared to Taylor.

The Michigan Model
This model was developed in 1984, and emphasized on the idea that organizational effectiveness depends on a tight fit between the HR strategy and business strategy. It focuses on trying to get a more increased strategic consideration to the HR of a company as it is the only effective mode of developing the HRM systems. This is a form of ‘Hard HRM’. The Michigan Model this has been developed by Charles Fombrun, Neol Tichy and Mary Anne Devanna. This model emphasised on the need to treat employees in a similar pattern as any other resource: ‘obtained cheaply, used sparingly and developed and exploited as fully as possible’ (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004, p686).
The Human Resource Cycle
This theory is based mainly on the ‘Human Resources Cycle’, which focuses on the contribution of selection, appraisal, rewards, and development of employee performance. These methods must be consistent to ensure the same message is sent out. This method has not been as successful as other models due to the drawback of being extremely narrowly focused on the various aspects of Human Resource Management. Thus this method has not been very well identified, as it has not taken into account various other factors like the trade unions, constantly changing competitive environment, etc.
The literature will also deal with other models like the Harvard Model, Rutger’s Model, Warwick Model, and Bath Model.
Employee Motivation:
Employee motivation is a very important aspect of management. Every individual has different motives in life. These motives can affect the individuals behavior at all times. Thus it is essential for managers to understand the needs of employees to ensure better performance within the organization. Motivation is generally explored on the basis of three main aspects; a) Goals, b) Decisions, and c) Influence.
Goals refer to the main motives for an individual’s behavior. The various motives can vary from individual to individuals at different times. Goals can vary from need for wealth, status and power. This can be understood better based on the content theories.
Decisions refer to why people tend to work harder and what really motivates them. This is understood better based on the process theories that have been developed by various authors over the years.
Figure: Process of Motivation (CGDA, 2008)
Lastly the Influence factor refers to the various external and social factors that affect and motivate employees to work better and perform and contribute to the company. There are a number of different theories that have been developed to address the factors that influence the motivation of employees these will be discussed under the various enrichment theories.
The research will deal with the following theories that have been set down in th figure below. These theories will permit for a better understanding of factors and details of how managers can motivate their employees and ensure better and higher productivity.

Figure: Model of Motivation (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004)
Research Methodology
This part of the proposal describes the research approaches and methodology which will be utilised in the proposed research. It also provides an overview of the data collection methods, the type of data to be used and the method of data analysis. These will be linked to the theories and modules outlined in the literature review.
Research Paradigm
A paradigm can have various meanings. It refers to “your basic beliefs” and your approach to the world which affects the way you define your research and how you collect and analyse data (Collis & Hussey, 2003, p. 47).
The research approaches used in the study comprises a mixture of both the “phenomenological paradigm” which is also referred to as a “qualitative” approach, and the “positivistic paradigm” also known as the “quantitative” approach (Collis & Hussey, 2003, p. 47).
“Phenomenological” is based on the word “phenomenon” which means a fact that happened or an event that was witnessed. With the phenomenological approach the focus is on “understanding the human behaviour from the participant’s own frame of reference” (Collis & Hussey, 2003, p. 53). As this approach is related to an event within a context of time and place, the aim is to investigate an event by carrying out your own research to “construct new theory to explain the phenomenon” (Collis & Hussey, 2003, pp. 56-57) or use existing theory. The aim and focus with this approach is “on the quality and depth of data” (Collis & Hussey, 2003, pp. 56-57).
With the positivistic paradigm, the emphasis is on using measurement to find out the relationships between facts and causes of the phenomenon. This is “an essential element of the research process under this paradigm” (Collis & Hussey, 2003, p. 57). This approach is useful when there is a need to conduct statistical analysis (Collis & Hussey, 2003, p. 56).
A positivistic approach will be used and the researcher will be independent, will not be influenced by the subject of research, and will take “the role of an objective analyst” (Saunders & Lewis & Thornhill, 2000, p. 85).
According to Denzin & Lincoln (cited in Silverman 2005), “qualitative investigators think they can get closer to the actor’s perspective through detailed interviewing and observation” (p. 10). With qualitative researchers, the emphasis is on the close relationship between the subject of research and the researcher where the value is in the social reality and the meaning of the social event or phenomenon. However, in comparison, quantitative researchers focus on the measurement and analysis of facts and causes. The qualitative approach relies on the quality and depth of data and does not focus on the “measured (if measured at all) in terms of quantity, amount, intensity, or frequency” (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000, p. 8). In addition, as Waters (2001) explains, the quantitative approach is based on “simplified representations of reality where real features are depicted by symbols” (p. 8).
Research Design
The research will utilise interviews to collect data, it would be advantageous to use both the qualitative and quantitative approaches. This will be useful when conducting interviews, as the phenomenological paradigm helps the researcher to “get a feel for the key issues” and provides “confidence” in the accuracy and depth of the data collected as the main issues have been covered (Saunders & Lewis & Thornhill, 2000, p. 98). Furthermore, working within the positivistic paradigm will assist in measuring the data and the correlation between the variables, and the quantitative research outcome could be measured against existing theory.
Chosen Methodology
The research methodology that will be utilised here is a combination of both primary as well as a secondary research. The primary research that will be adopted here in this research will include questionnaires to be filed out by the employees of a company. The company as mentioned earlier chosen for this research will be Tesco. Attempt will be made to speak to employee of the stores and to get them to fill out the questionnaires for the research. An attempt to also get direct interviews with the management will also be made.
Data Sources
For the research, data will be collected from two types of sources, which are primary and secondary (Sekaran, 2000, p. 221). This is referred to as “data triangulation, where data is collected at different times or from different sources in the study of a phenomenon” (Collis & Hussey, 2003, p. 78). Primary data is information gathered from direct observation, conducting interviews, surveys, and questionnaires, from “individuals, focus groups, and a panel of respondents specifically set up by the researcher whose opinions may be sought on specific issues from time to time” (Sekaran, 2000, p. 221). Secondary data on the other hand refers to information published by others and which is already available. (Collis & Hussey, 2003, pp. 53-54). It is also data collected by other people rather than the researcher who is carrying out the study (Sekaran, 2000, p. 255). Secondary data is information available from books, journals and online resources.
Data Collection Methods
Collection methods will involve conducting structured face-to-face and telephone interviews. A list of set questions will be asked in all of the interviews and these will not vary from one person to another. This primary data will then be analysed. The advantage of using a structured interview is that it will help to “clarify doubts, and ensure that the responses are properly understood, by repeating or rephrasing the questions” (Sekaran, 2000, p. 230). It is also an opportunity to request “more in-depth information about specific variables of interest” (Sekaran, 2000, p. 233). However, there are disadvantages to face-to-face interviews as some “respondents might feel uneasy about the anonymity of their responses when they interact face to face with the interviewer” (Sekaran, 2000, p. 230). There are also “geographical limitations” (Sekaran, 2000, p. 230) which is why telephone interviews will be used to gather data from a wider range of participants in the UK.
Secondary data will be gathered from books, journals, and online news, general, and government websites, some of which is referred to in the literature review. However, data collected from the internet will be considered with caution. This data needs to be evaluated based on its author which helps to identify whether the site is trusted or not, as the internet is “an open door to nonsense to appear, and one way of checking on this is knowing about the author” (Berry, 2004, p. 32).
Data Analysis and Conclusion
As the study used a mixture of the phenomenological and positivistic approaches to research, both qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods will be utilised. The data collected will be studied using “inductive” and “deductive” approaches to develop and theoretical framework. First of all, with the inductive approach information is put together from the data that has been collected. Then using the deductive approach allows the researcher to “turn away from the data and think rationally about the missing information and form conclusions based on logic” (Collis & Hussey, 2003, p. 73).
The research questions will be answered on the basis of “an informed academic judgement, adopting the conceptual world-view of a perspective or theory and evaluating competing perspectives and theories through the ‘lens’ of this world-view” (Redman, 2006, p. 29). The outcome of the study is to formulate a grounded theory, based on the phenomenon being studied, which throws light on the issue of consumer trust in banking. Indeed, Collins & Hussey (2003) confirm that a study “illuminates the area under investigation” (p. 73). They also define grounded theory as “one of the interpretive methods that share the common philosophy of phenomenology” (Collis & Hussey, 2003, p. 73).
Activities and Implementation Timeline
The research will contain a number of activities. The table provided below provides for the timeline for the implementation of the activities. .
Activities
Timeline
Collecting and reading data for research
2 weeks
Creating a well planned dissertation flow and allocation of information
1 week
Literature review
3 weeks
Analysis of findings
3 weeks
Completing the dissertation
1 week
Revising, editing, proof reading and submission
2 weeks
Please note this is an approximate of the time needed for each of the activities. There might be some changes based on time it takes for each of the steps.
References
Berry, R., 2004, ‘The Research Project’ 5th edition, Routledge, New York
Buchanan D. and Huczynski A., 2004, Organizational behavior, 5th edn, Prentice Hall, Essex
Collis, J. & Hussey, R., 2003, ‘Business Research: A practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students’, 2nd edition, Macmillan Press Ltd., London
CGDA, 2008, Process of Motivation, Accessed on 2 September 2009, Retrieved from
http://cgda.nic.in/rt/rtcblr/website/Training%20Material/H%20R%20D/Image11.gif
Daft, R., 2005, ‘Management’, 7th edition, Thomson South-Western, Mason, OH
Fayol, H., 1949, ‘General and industrial management’, Pitman Publishing company, London
Fayol, H., 1987, ‘General and industrial management: Henri Fayol’s classic revised by Irwin Gray’, David S. Lake Publishers, Belmont, CA
George, C., 1968, ‘The History of Management thought’, Prentice – Hall, UK
Gazendam, H.W.M, 1993, ‘Variety Controls Variety: On the use of Organisation Theories in Information Management’, Groningen: Wolters – Noordhoff, 400p
Redman, P., 2006, ‘Good Essay Writing’, 3rd edition, Sage Publications, London
Sekaran, U., 2000, ‘Research Methods for Business, A Skill-Building Approach’, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York
Bibliography
Adams, S.J., 1963, Toward an understanding of inequity, Journal of abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol 67, no.4, pp422-36
Adams, S.J., 1965, Inequality in Social Exchange, in L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Academic Press, New York, pp 267 - 99
Beer, M., Lawrence, P.R., Quinn Mills, D., and Walton, R.E., 1985, ‘Human Resource Management: A General Manager’s Perspective’, Free Press, Glencoe, IL
Beer, M., and Spector, B., 1985, ‘Corporate – wide transformations in human resource management’, in Buchanan D. and Huczynski A., 2004, ‘Organizational Behavior’, 5th edition, Prentice Hall, Essex
Fitz-enz, Jac, 2000, The ROI of Human Capital: Measuring the Economic Value of Employee Performance 1st edition, AMACOM
Huffman, K., 2005, ‘Living Psychology: Study Guide’, 17 March 2005, 1st edn. , Wiley Publishers
Huffman, K., 2006, ‘Psychology in Action: Study Guide’, 27 March 2006, 8th edn. , Wiley Publishers
Jobber, D., 2004, Principles and Practice of Marketing, 4th Edition, McGraw – Hill, Berkshire
Locke, Edwin A., ‘Personnel Attitudes and Motivation’, Annual Review of Psychology, 1975, Vol. 26, p388
Maslow, A.,H., 1998, ‘Toward a Psychology of Being’, 9 November 1998, 3rd Edn., Wiley Publishers
Podmoroff, D.B.A., 2005, 365 Ways to Motivate and Reward Your Employees Every Day: With Little or No Money, 30 September 2005, Atlantic Publishing Company
Quick MBA, 2008, Expectancy Theory, Accessed on 17 September 2009, Retrieved from http://www.quickmba.com/mgmt/expectancy-theory/
Sparrow, P., and Hiltrop, J.M., 1994, ‘European Human Resource Management in Transition’, Prentice Hall, Hemel Hempstead
Value Based Management, 2008, ERG Theory Alderfer, Accessed on 12 September, 2009, Retrieved from
http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_alderfer_erg_theory.html
Weightman, J., ‘Managing People’, 2nd edition, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2004, CIPD Publishing, London Read More
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