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A careful look at the peaks results displayed by the NMR of the substance is also required. A singlet peak at a chemical shift value of 11.1ppm confirms the presence of the COOH group. Peak at 2.4ppm is due to the presence of the group R-C=O attached to CH. Applying the n+1 rule we know that the methylene or the CH2 group will be able to interact with the three hydrogen of the methyl or the CH3 group, hence (3+1)=4 peaks or a quadruplet is obtained. Similarly the three hydrogen atoms of methyl are ale to interact with the 2 hydrogen of methylene, hence (2+1) =3 or a triplet peak is displayed. The ratio obtained is determined by the relative heights of the respective peaks.
Peak at 3330 per cm at the infra red spectrum is due to the high absorption range of the O-H group in the compound, whereas peaks centered at 2900 per cm is due to the presence of C-H bonds in the compound.
M-1 peak of 60 is the RMM of the compound (12*3) + (1*8) + 16= 60 atomic mass unit, peak at 31 confirms the presence of CH2OH: 12+2+16+1=31, C2H3 gives peak at 27: (12*2) + (1*3), C3H7O :( 12*3) + (1*7) + 16=59.
3.6ppm value at the NMR suggests the presence of R-OH functional group. The single hydrogen is able to interact with the neighboring hydrogen of the CH2 group hence a triplet is obtained. A singlet peak at a chemical shift of 2.2ppm shows the presence of the R-C-O fragment. 6 peaks at 1.6ppm are obtained due to the presence of R3CH where single hydrogen is able to interact with 5 neighboring hydrogen giving 6 peaks. Triplet of 0.9ppm is present due to R-CH3 as three hydrogen interact with the neighboring 2 of the CH2 giving a triplet peak (2+1). The ratio of 2:1:2:3 provides us the different environments of the protons.
Percentages of carbon, hydrogen and an unknown element are 45.9%, 8.9% and 45.2% respectively. Dividing them by their respective relative molecular masses 45.9/12, 8.9/1 and 45.2/35.5, it is found out that the other element is chlorine as the percentage
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Can we see, weigh and perceive these entities? Is it possible to count the number of atoms and molecules in a given mass of matter and have a quantitative relationship between mass and the number of atoms and molecules in an exact manner? The answer is precisely a No!
Thus, in descending order, the boiling points are: 1-Hexanol> 1-Pentanol > 3-Methyl-1-Butanol > 3-Methyl-2-Butanone Boiling points are temperatures at which the vapour pressure of the liquid, equals that of the gas pressure above it (Hill & John, 2011: p32).
For the past 150 years or so, organic chemists have extracted, isolated, purified, and characterized the myriad compounds produced by plants that for centuries have been used as drugs and perfumes-substances such as quinine from cinchona bark, morphine from the opium poppy, cocaine from coca leaves, and menthol from peppermint oil.
Also, the population will need to mate at random. If a population meets these standards, we can use the formula p^2 + 2pq +q^2 to quantify genotype frequencies. We will then say that p^2 = homozygous dominant individuals, allow p to represent the square root of the number used for p^2.
How could you prove the test tubes contain three different chemical compounds? Even if two different compounds have the same melting point, if they are mixed together the melting point of the mixture will be lowered because the
ovides the amines with the property such that the chemical reactions with other compounds are similar, regardless of the size of the molecules because its hydrogen atoms are replaced by hydrocarbons like alkyl and aryl groups to form relatively stable compounds. Hence, even when
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