Download file to see previous pages...
Lewis and Arthur (1972) identified definition of curriculum in the following categories: course of study, intended learning outcomes, intended opportunities for engagement learning opportunities provided, learner’s actual engagement, and learner’s actual experiences. They defined curriculum as “a set of intentions about opportunities for engagement of persons-to-be-educated with other persons and with things (all bearers of information, processes, techniques, and values) in certain arrangements of time and space.”
Tanner and Tanner (1980) traced the history of curriculum definitions showing that “curriculum has been variously defined as: 1) the cumulative tradition of organized knowledge; 2) modes of thoughts; 3) race experience; 4) guided experience; 5) a planned learning environment; 6) cognitive/affective content and process; 7) an instructional plan; 8) instructional ends or outcomes; and 9) a technological systems of production.”
Historically and currently, the dominant concepts of the curriculum is that of subjects and subject matter therein to be taught by teachers and learned by students. In high schools and colleges, the term curriculum has been and still is widely used to refer to the set of subjects or courses offered, and also to those required or recommended or grouped for other purposes; thus, terms as the college preparatory curriculum, science curriculum, and premedical curriculum are commonly used. In curriculum terminology, program of studies is more properly used in these connections.
Despite efforts for over a half century to achieve broader and different curriculum foci, the concept of curriculum as subject matter persists as the basis of the dominant curriculum design. It was central to and emphasized by the wave of curriculum development in the subject fields that began in the 1950s and was stimulated by the Russian advance into out space and subsequent pressure to improve American education.
The concept of the curriculum as
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
The paper will expound on the challenges posed by the existing policy in the advancement of the curriculum, the benefits of the policy as well as the remedies appropriate in addressing the problem posed by the existing policies. The health policy defines the purpose and role of nurse in the health sector.
Rapid changes in technology, culture, science, and a litany of other categories means that a nearly incessant stream of updated, changing, and newly pertinent/relevant information exists within the global system. The forces of globalisation that have so heavily impacted the way in which the course of the latter half of the 21st century has unfolded continue to play out and shape the ways in which decisions are made and outcomes are generated.
This paper discusses the context of developing a curriculum in high school where all the individuals regardless of their gender, race, able or disabled are included and their output valued. This essay defines and discusses in broad the issues surrounding the different types of culture in the high school.
Based on these readings, this paper will reflect how the essential factors discussed can guide and hinder curriculum development in nursing. How they guide? The essentials of baccalaureate nursing and master’s education in nursing play a significant role in guiding curriculum development in nursing.
Proper washing of hands can be very beneficial in ensuring that the spread of germs or infections is prevented.
Health workers need to be at the fore front in promoting healthy living which simply begins by simple responsibilities like washing hands. Hands should be washed at minimum; before food preparation, during and after cooking; before eating; before and after handling patients; after using the washrooms and after sneezing, coughing and blowing noses, Hand washing Liaison Group (1999).
Curriculum should be viewed as an overall instructional plan which consist of testimonial of aims and objectives, theoretical knowledge, attitude towards work, practical skills to be acquired, and vital support materials to be utilized in its presentation.
The advances in technology have played a crucial role in increasing demand for accountability from educational institutions, since the various sectors of higher education are increasingly being viewed by State Governments as the means to enhance worker skills in the use of technology to strengthen the state’s economic position and contribute to increased productivity.
three people don’t clean their hands after visiting the washrooms (toilet or bathroom) and that only a third of the population wash their hands after sneezing or coughing. Proper washing of hands can be very beneficial in ensuring that the spread of germs or infections is
hich is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school.” By extension, it is the skills and knowledge that the students are supposed to learn which revolves round learning standards and objectives expected to