Free

Why poverty was re-discovered in Britain in the late 1950s and early 1960 - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
As Britain’s economy slowly grew during the post-war period, so public spending as a percentage of GNP rose, to reach approximately half in the 1970s, and within public spending, the amount spent on social welfare also rose, to reach approximately a quarter of this half in the…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER94.7% of users find it useful
Why poverty was re-discovered in Britain in the late 1950s and early 1960
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Why poverty was re-discovered in Britain in the late 1950s and early 1960"

As Britain’s economy slowly grew during the post-war period, so public spending as a percentage of GNP rose, to reach approximately half in the 1970s, and within public spending, the amount spent on social welfare also rose, to reach approximately a quarter of this half in the 1970’s.
The economic situation was difficult before the 1964 election so the incoming Labour Government inherited a number of problems notably a rising balance of payments deficit. It re-nationalized steel at a high cost and also expand the economy. The period 1964-1970 was characterized by a number of economic crises. Britain’s share of world trade fell from 13.9% to 10.8% during this time. Taxation increased from 32% of GDP to 43% of GDP. Economic planning had failed and this failure precluded major social planning despite the fact that some social reforms such as the launch of comprehensive education, reorganization of public transport, development in health and local government.
Abel-Smith and Townsend are credited with the "rediscovery of poverty" in the 1960’s: noticed that certain categories such as, families with children on low incomes and retired couples often lived in difficult circumstances. The definition of poverty adopted by Abel-Smith and Peter Townsend in their 1965 study, was the concept of “The Poor and the Poorest”. They concluded that "poverty was entirely a relative concept," and defined households to be in, or at the margins of, poverty if their income was less than "140 percent of the then current National Assistance scale plus rent". In 1960, 17.9% of households lived below this relative poverty standard. An unknown, but significantly smaller, share of the population had incomes below the "physical efficiency" or "human needs" poverty lines. (Ian Gazeley, Poverty in Britain 1900-1965)
There was a strong case for saying that socially deprived families are frequently found in confined geographical areas identifiable by certain physical and social characteristics. Examples of these characteristics: geographical location, "twilight zones" near a city’s business area; areas populated by immigrants; overcrowded and poor amenities, Victorian housing stock; areas with a high percentage of unskilled and semi-skilled workers; higher than average proportions of families on State benefits; higher than normal percentage of large families; large number of fatherless families; areas with little play space and recreational facilities; areas with poorer health; high percentage of child deprivation and delinquency. Often these confined geographical areas had worse social services than the more attractive areas.
The benefits of the Welfare State were not reaching everyone in British society. Inner cities contained some of the following problems associated with people:
Poverty and income support dependency, unemployment, chronic unemployment, the unskilled and under-skilled, one-parent families, large families, the elderly, single elderly people, the sick, and the chronic sick, families in need of social services.
1.Environmental factors:
Poor physical environment, physical dilapidation, environmental pollution, crime, the fear of crime and social tension.
2. Educational factors:
Physically run-down schools, poor teaching, low levels of educational attainment.
3. Service Provision:
Poor or inadequate health services, poor environmental services, poor financial services like the unavailability of loans.
4. Economic factors:
Decayed economic infrastructure, poor and inadequate tax base and a high dependency ratio. (Treble, J. H., Urban Poverty in Britain)
Thus poverty in Britain has been associated with her costly spending to transform into a Welfare State with the money from the taxes paid by its rich citizens that promises to take for her citizens. These benefits failed to reach all sections of the society thus giving rise to poverty in the late 1950s and early 1960s. (T. F. Marshall, "The Role of the Social Services" in Political Quarterly, vol. 40, N°1, Jan-March 1969)
List of References:
1. Ian Gazeley, Poverty in Britain, 1900-1965, Palgrave Macmillan (2003)
2. T. F. Marshall, "The Role of the Social Services" in Political Quarterly, vol. 40, N°1, Jan-March 1969
3. Edward Palmer Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (1963), Vintage (February 12, 1966)
4. Steadman-Jones, G. (1971), Outcast London, Oxford, Oxford University Press
5. Treble, J. H., (1979) Urban Poverty in Britain, Batsford, London Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Why poverty was re-discovered in Britain in the late 1950s and early Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1542934-why-poverty-was-re-discovered-in-britain-in-the-late-1950s-and-early-1960
(Why Poverty Was Re-Discovered in Britain in the Late 1950s and Early Essay)
https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1542934-why-poverty-was-re-discovered-in-britain-in-the-late-1950s-and-early-1960.
“Why Poverty Was Re-Discovered in Britain in the Late 1950s and Early Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1542934-why-poverty-was-re-discovered-in-britain-in-the-late-1950s-and-early-1960.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Why poverty was re-discovered in Britain in the late 1950s and early 1960

Young College Female Students in early 1960 to 1963

.... It was observed that there were 1.6 males for every female graduating from four-year colleges in the US in 1960 whereas there were 1.55 males for every female for the undergraduate students.18 Two significant developments were observed in women education in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Firstly, there was a significant increase in the female enrollment in the colleges in the US. The females accounted for 35.0% of the total college graduates in the United States in 1960.19 By 1961, the female students accounted for 38 percent of the total college enrollment in the country20. The figure was changing considerably and the females’ proportion would...
15 Pages(3750 words)Research Paper

The Impact Cancer Had on American Culture during the Late 1950s and Early 1960s

..., complete blood count, bone marrow biopsy, MRI scan among others. Treatment is through early diagnosis and treatment, removal of the abnormal cells, chemotherapy and radiation. Prevention of cancer can be done through regular exercise, healthy dieting, limiting alcohol and not smoking (Cantor 21). “The spread of cancer was facilitated by poliovirus vaccines that were used during the late 1950s and early 1960s and were contaminated with a monkey virus that is harmful to rodents and has been identified in some human cancers” (jnci.oxfordjournals.org p.3).The monkey virus was discovered in 1960 and its effect on rodents in...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

Early and Late Adolescence

...?Running head: EARLY AND LATE ADOLESCENCE Changes observed during Early and Late Adolescence s Changes observed duringEarly and Late Adolescence The developmental transition of a child after the age of 11 could be divided into two stages. The two stages are 'The Early Adolescence', that transforms a kid into youth (from 12 to 18, years), and the 'Late Adolescence', which turns the youth into an adult (18 to 24 years) (Newman & Newman, 2011).  The early adolescence stage starts with the initiation of puberty. During this stage, a combination of cognitive, social and physical changes of critical nature take...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Early and Late Selection Models of Attention

.... This theory argues that a response against attended vs. unattended information is generated and differs early in perceptual processing. But it was later suggested that unattended information may not be completely blocked and may be processed more deeply. On the other hand, late selectionists argued that these unattended stimuli might undergo full perceptional processing but the person may not deliberately show a response based on these processing outcomes. During 1950s, most of the work on the subject of selective attention was focused on audition but from 1960 onward, most of the attention was laid on the visual component of selective attention. (Driver 2001). The...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Early and late industrialization

...Early’ and ‘late’ industrialization Ever since the first modern industrial revolution in Great Britain in the middle of the 18th century world nations have been trying either to ‘cope up’ or ‘forge ahead’ the industrial development and subsequent economic growth acquired by Great Britain. The ‘early’ industrial revolution found its way to Europe too in the early 19th century. After the Second World War, countries such as Japan, Taiwan, Mexico and South Korea amassed a considerable economic growth through large scale modern industrial enterprises and they are rightly termed as the late industrialized nations. These...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

RE

...God: One and the Same Introduction More often than not, in this Christian-founded nation, when people think or speak of God their mind automaticallyswitches to the concepts of God that have been presented by the Christian or Catholic churches: this invisible, omnipresent being who answers prayers, touches hearts, and instills His fear into those that follow and oppose Him. However, if one were to travel to other countries, to different parts of the United States, or even to their next door neighbor’s house, they may find that a contrasting image of God exists there (Fisher & Smart, 1998). Although God is considered to be a part of just the Christian-based religions, there are many people that would be shocked to find that even... One and the...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

Late Roman, Early Christian and Byzantine Art

...sky. The stars over eight hundred of them are set in concentric orbits around a golden Latin cross, with the cryptograms of the Four Evangelists upon the spandrels. The arcs of the side niches have equivalent golden patterns upon a dark background, featuring an assortment of flowers and plants down with additional stars. Next, it is essential to consider that the cross on the catacomb is jutting toward the east instead of being united with the position of the Chapel. This is nearly surely since the Chapel is not aligned to the in harmony with the set up custom, and the decorator partly corrected that by offering the central cross the appropriate alignment. May be the most essential mosaic in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia is an...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Late Roman, Early Christian and Byzantine Art

...Late Roman, Early Christian and Byzantine Art Mausoleum of Galla Placia exists in Ravenna, Italy. The Mausoleum is a roman building. On the exterior, the Mausoleum is made of bricks, plain and appears modest. On careful scrutiny, one could think it assumed the shape of a Greek cross. It also got blind arches on the given walls. Over the crossing, it also got a square tower. It is only when one enters inside that one marvels at the beauty it carries. Mausoleum interior is exquisite as it is richly covered by Byzantine mosaics. Light enters the inside via alabaster window panels. In careful examination of its interior, one would never miss two famous mosaic lunettes in the mosaic filled area (Ricci 22)....
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Early or late industrialization

.... This view seems to gain credibility owing to the failure of communism with regard to its aims, corruption, totalitarian, and gross inefficiency. This topic is related to the discipline of economics to the sense that it makes us understand the meaning of economic success. A comparison of the two systems, that is socialism, and capitalism will make us to understand the meaning of economic success. An economic system that is perceives as being unjust and then led to a global poverty would be indeed a dubious achievement. It may be rightly argued that the economic justice is jeopardized when the outcome is peoples ‘that is instigated by poverty. In another spectrum, an economic system that is perceived as...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Who discovered America First

...1. To a larger extent, Christopher Columbus can be credited with discovering America. Though history shows that Eriscksson and the other Vicking explorers arrived in America about 500 years before Columbus’ first visit to America, it can be seen that even today Columbus is credited of discovering America. In this case, credit is not given to Columbus on the basis of who was the first to visit the place but contribution that has been made to American history. Columbus’ visit was well documented and it significantly contributes to American history today. On the other hand, the history of Ericksson who is believed to be one of the first Europeans to visit America has not been documented in written form like...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Why poverty was re-discovered in Britain in the late 1950s and early 1960 for FREE!

Contact Us