Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...


Comments (0) Cite this document
The aim of the work is to show that the normal human organism undergoes certain changes during exercises and needs certain time for recovery. I will here try to take into account all important aspects of the human…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.4% of users find it useful
Read TextPreview


Download file to see previous pages The situation, which will be described in this work, is the following: the experienced athlete is going to run a 20km marathon today. The aim is to describe his physiological changes during all aspects of this event. First of all, it is necessary to note, that marathons are not related to the sub maximal loadings; they are related to the dynamic kinds of sports with rather steady and obviously smoother changes in various physiological indices of the sportsman under research.
Thus, let us look at the changes, which are caused by the nervous system when the race has just begun. According to Sutoo & Akiyama (2003), exercise modifies the function of brain, as well as the nervous system functioning. However, the mechanism of these changes is still unknown for the scientists. According to the experiments, the influence of the physical exercises has been displayed through the increase of the level in serum calcium, transported to the brain, to stimulate the synthesis of dopamine. In its turn, the higher level of DA synthesis becomes the main reason of the physiological changes during physical exercises. Thus, the main effect caused by the nervous system changes during the dynamic exercises is the increase in blood pressure, the rationale for which lies in the calcium-exchange changes; but it is important to know, that profound understanding of the process of calcium production as a result of long stable exercises becomes the reason for general decrease in blood pressure, and this contradiction may be explained as follows. Calcium is known to reduce blood pressure through the calcium/CaM-dependent DA-synthesizing system, simultaneously increasing it through intracellular calcium-dependent mechanism. These facts explain why the first several minutes of race are the most difficult even for the experienced racers. The calcium infusion, caused by exercises, becomes the reason of hypercalcemia during the first kilometers of race, and causes higher blood pressure, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
Retrieved from
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


Applied Sport and Exercise Physiology

The retrieval of all values was done on single breath measurements. The measurement of the heart rate was also done continually by the use of telemetry. For 1-Mile Walk Test, the VO2max was measured using a treadmill protocol which included running or walking at a speed that was self-selected, with a two and a half rise in grade every two minutes. Ability to estimate VO2max from the outcomes of maximal and submaximal exercises Introduction VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake) is actually considered as the best way of determining aerobic performance and fitness of cardio-pulmonary. It is believed that the best way of estimating maximum oxygen uptake is by directly measuring the uptake of oxygen during maximal exercise. However, this met...
18 Pages(4500 words)Essay

Modify the last one

...?Management Table of Contents Management Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 2.2 Basis of the Research 3 2.3 Recent Developments 3 2.4 Issue to be solved 4 2.5 Methodology 5 2.6 Relevant Sources 6 2.7 Necessary Models 7 2.8 Gantt Chart/ Timeline 7 2.9 Conclusion 8 Bibliography 10 2.1 Introduction An appropriate topic including economic as well as management theories has been proposed as follows – ‘An examination of the factors necessary to successfully venture J T Inglis & Sons Ltd in the emerging market of India.’ This topic could be regarded as included both under the domains of management and economics. While attempting a new endeavor and deciding the crucial factors to be considered for the same, could be regarded as part... Table of...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay


...? MATERNAL IMPACT OF PREGNANCY (DURING GESTATION) by of the of the of the School 3 October, 2013 Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Mattison, D R 2013, Clinical Pharmacology during Pregnancy, Elsevier Inc., London. 15 Symonds, ME and Ramsay, MR 2010, Maternal-Foetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 15 OUTLINE 1. INTRODUCTION 2. PHYSIOLOGY OF NORMAL PREGNANCY a. Prenatal development b. Uterine changes c. Placental development and function 3. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES TO THE MATERNAL SYSTEM a. Musculoskeletal system b. Gastrointestinal system 4. MATERNAL PHYSIOLOGY ADAPTATION OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM a. Physical changes b. Haemodynamic changes c. Changes in maternal coagulation...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Exercise Physiology Laboratory

... is widely used to assess the percentage body fat Noninvasive method Mostly concerned with subcutaneous fat (under the skin) Inexpensive way of estimating percent body fat May not be an ideal measurement for those who are obese and very lean Does not require much time Technical sources of error 2. ACCURACY OF SKINFOLD MEASUREMENT (DETERMINING BODY COMPOSITION) If the test is performed according to the recommended guidelines, the accuracy is about +/- 3%. 3. MODERATELY OBESE CATEGORY People falling in this category are recommended to have a balanced nutrition and exercising habits as mentioned below. Mild to moderate Obesity result in Decrease in Lung Volume and alterations in respiratory mechanism when supine, seated...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment

Exercise Physiology in Extreme Environments

The term hypoxia refers to a pathological condition in which the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply (Wikipedia, 2006a). Physiologists have long been astonished by the changes that occur with adaptation to altitude as the circulatory system attempts to compensate for the increased hypoxia by enhancing certain characteristics. Common reasoning asserts that if the characteristics of circulation at altitude are better than those of sea-level, then sea-level performances should be enhanced among these athletes. For example, training at altitude, anywhere above 3000 meters, increases the body’s number of red blood cells, thus the blood’s capacity to carry oxygen is greater. It seems reasonable that this would enhance sea-lev...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay


... in women. This difference is due to higher androgen levels resulting in greater periosteal apposition in adolescent boys and estrogen inhibiting this apposition in adolescent girls (Cosman, “Medscape today”). However, before puberty, boys and girls acquire bone mass at similar rates. African American females tend to achieve higher peak bone mass than Caucasian females (Cosman, “Medscape today”). Estrogen has an effect on peak bone mass. Hence, women who had their first menstrual cycle at an early age and those who use oral contraceptives which contain estrogen have higher bone mineral density (Cosman, “Medscape today”). Also, reduced bone mass is seen in women with amenorrhea from a variety of causes, including excessive exercise, anorexia...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Lab report (exercise physiology unit)

...Laboratory Report (Exercise Physiology Unit) Our body is made up of water, fat, protein, carbohydrate and various vitamins and minerals. If we have too much fat we are at higher risk for such health problems as high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and diabetes. That amplifies our risk for heart disease and stroke. (American Heart Association, 2008) Body composition tests help us scrutinize and analyze if our body compositions, especially body fats, are at normal and healthy levels. A test such as the blood lactate measurement is used by sport scientists, coaches and athletes to accurately determine Heart Rate training zones, recovery and much more.  Lactate is a metabolic product that can be measured by taking a drop of blood...
2 Pages(500 words)Lab Report

Exercise 9: Renal System Physiology Worksheet Assignment

...Exercise 9: Renal System Physiology Worksheet Assignment Due: Week 8 instructions: Follow the step-by-step instructions for this exercise found in your text and record your answers in the spaces below. Submit this completed document by the assignment due date found in the Syllabus. Please make sure that your answers are typed in RED. Glomerular Filtration Activity 1: Effect of Arteriole Diameter on Glomerular Filtration 1. Compare this data with your baseline data. How did increasing the afferent arteriole radius affect glomerular filtration rate? Increasing the afferent arteriole radius resulted in an increase in the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR). 2. Under these conditions, does the fluid flow through the nephron? Yes, the blood...
3 Pages(750 words)Lab Report

Equine Exercise Physiology, Fitness and Training

...EQUINE EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY, FITNESS AND TRAINING due: Question One Consider A Racehorse OverSix Furlongs. a) Its’ cardiovascular and respiratory response to work Horses breathe through the nostrils that are modified to have clear upper airway with reduced air resistance. Activities in the larynx are slowed down by partial inactivity of the muscles and thus reducing airflow, which in turn cause respiratory – locomotory coupling. This means that both the breathing and striding of the horse are synchronized. Therefore, the oxygen intake directly correlates with the length and frequency of the stride. At rest, the heartbeat of a horse is 30-40 beats per minute. These increases when the horse is at full speed to a maximum heart rate of 240-250...
13 Pages(3250 words)Assignment

Does Game Violence Make Teens Aggressive

All those teens showed great changes in their behavior, which was not in a positive manner. (Vorderer, pp. 69-72)
Furthermore, a number of studies (Kirsh, pp. 11-13) have shown that worse academic results are shown by the teens that play violent video games according to the National Institute on Media and Family. It is indicated by the researches (Kirsh, pp. 17-22) that violent games are preferred by more than seventy-five percent of teens that are interested in playing video games. One of the schools in Texas carried out a study of teens that play video games, and it found out that teachers complained of frequent arguments from the students that were involved in playing violent video games at home. In some cases, teens were...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

How Does the US Media Effects Evolve in Singapores Current Media

Lewis and Slade (2000, p. 223) in their critical evaluation of the effects of media communication on the audience argue that media effect is achieved incongruent with social context. Their study recounts the experiment on the influence of television on identity in Singapore indicates that US social values and Singaporean values greatly differ from each other. The sharp differences in program content have a negative influence on the audience because Chinese raised Singaporeans value marriage, social values, and collectivism whereas US social culture involves career, family and the struggle to balance the two. Therefore the question of US media's influence to destabilize Singaporean national identity is limited. This view is emphasi...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Normal Anatomy and Causes of Knee Arthritis

A complete loss of articular cartilage is noted resulting in soft, elasticity loss, and fibrillation of the articular cartilage leading to the burned bone that is devoid of cartilage (Schwartz et al. 1942; LeadingMD par. 2). Complete loss of articular cartilage results in narrowing of the joint space, bone spurs, motion loss, pain, and disability (Schwartz, et al. 1942; LeadingMD par. 2). Knee arthritis, that typically influences patients over 50 years old, affects all knee cartilage leading to biomechanical and biochemical changes that impairs cartilage function (LeadingMD par. 6).

Knee arthritis occurs as a consequence of an injury, surgical procedure that includes partial or complete removal of the meniscus cartilage...
8 Pages(2000 words)Term Paper

How to Choose the Right Job

In a research that was conducted by the London School of Economics in 2005 – 2006, it has been seen that almost 61.6% of the students worked after graduation (LSE, 2008). According to Little (2007), the link between high education and employment is very high.

“Employability is a set of achievements – skills, understandings, and personal attributes – that make graduates more likely to gain employment and be successful in their chosen occupations, which benefits themselves, the workforce, the community, and the economy” (Little, 2007)

The research highlighted the strong points that are developed by students and the percentage of skills that are developed post-high education program...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Death Penalty: Does it Serve as a Deterrent to Future Crime

Animal instincts are directed towards self-preservation and it is the law of nature that a stronger and healthier individual has more chances of living than his weaker counterpart. The survival of the fittest has now been established as a ground reality according to Darwinian philosophy. If we eliminate our civilized thought process, it emerges as a stark reality that we would not desist from attacking another living person or animal when we are overcome by the basic needs of food, shelter, and clothing. In times of natural disasters like earthquakes, wars and floods, and manmade disasters like war, it is not uncommon to witness ravaged populations shedding the façade of civilization and resorting to violence in order to fu...
9 Pages(2250 words)Case Study

How Tomatoes Can Help Your Heart

Whether tomato is a fruit or vegetable? Well, this question can be answered in both ways. Botanically, tomato is a fruit but it is so frequently used as a culinary item all over the world, it is also considered as a vegetable. Long time back, the tomato was considered as fruit and helped the exporters to avoid taxation but 1893 the Supreme Court put an over this dispute by declaring that tomato was a vegetable and since that time onwards, tomatoes were taxed accordingly. Keeping in harmony with this tradition, till date tomatoes are served as entrée and very rarely as dessert. Apart from side dishes, wide array of main course dishes are also prepared from tomatoes and these dishes are regarded considered as lip-smacking cui...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 and How It Has Impacted the Financial Markets

Though there were objections from various quarters about the huge amounts of tax payer’s money being used in the bailout of huge corporates, the Act has been successful in moving the downturn towards a flat point and now has started slowly moving towards a recovery stage. The various programs under the EESA 2008 have played a significant role in the financial sector, housing mortgage, and banking institutions to save the institutions from complete disaster.

The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act is a huge taxpayer bailout designed to rescue the financial sector. The amount of money to be used is around $700 billion or $2000 per American citizen (Public mark up). Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 is al...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

What Is the Hybrid Warfare and What Challenges Does It Present

...The term HYBRID warfare is increasingly used to describe current and future conflict; what is it and what challenges does it present? The end of theCold War and the events of 9/11 have provided a catalyst for unprecedented challenges to the international order and national security policy. Arguably the most important challenge has been the appropriate and most efficacious method to combat a transient and intangible enemy, which transcends borders and the conventional notion of an organised army that “yet has shown a remarkable resilience against traditional military firepower”1. Moreover, Mahmood’s observations highlight the changing nature of conflict and the fact that the contemporary international framework has removed pre-existing...
7 Pages(1750 words)Article

The Trends in the Steel Industry and How It May Impact Nucor Corporations Strategy

The whole organization at Nucor’s revolves around the laid principles and focus on reinforcing to the extent that the organization is known for its culture and quality. Simultaneous quality checks and adherence are also as important building a strong culture for the organizations.

Nucor Corporation has always tried to challenge itself for further progress and to keep abreast of the industry of steel business.

Let us look at the trends observed in the business of the steel industry. The trend in the steel industry is very dynamic and always impacted by internal and extraneous factors. For almost 50 years the United States of America reigned in the industry of steel production, almost half of the entire p...
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study

How Do Customers Assess Service Quality of Retailing Websites

Given the emergent nature of online commerce, it is a tough task for retailers to develop a website that meets all expectations from consumers. This view is supported by a survey conducted by the UK’s largest e-consultancy Cap Gemini. The survey identified several key disadvantages for online shoppers. Some of these include “’ Availability’, ‘Can’t be in to receive delivery’, ‘Premium charged for delivery’, ‘Can’t see or feel the merchandise’, etc.” (Quader & Quader, 2008) These are not trivial complaints by any means and despite the e-retailing industry setting foot into its third decade in existence, there are no satisfactory solutions found for th...
6 Pages(1500 words)Literature review

Diseases Based on Physiological Changes Seen with Normal Thyroid Physiology

The disease can only be revealed through blood tests and other thyroid tests. However, if hypothyroidism is not treated and is neglected the symptoms start getting noticeable and the situation gets worse (Adair & et. al., 2008). There are certain symptoms of hypothyroidism that may be noticeable within a person if not treated at the right time. These include weight gain, depression, low energy levels, slow thinking, constipation, muscle weakness, tenderness, aches, pain, swelling of joints, swelling of face, pale dry skin and high sensitivity to cold among others (Penn State Hershey, 2011). It is very essential to treat hypothyroidism at the right time because neglecting it, may cause various serious health-related issues such...
9 Pages(2250 words)Coursework
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic HOW DOES EXERCISE MODIFY NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY for FREE!

Contact Us