StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...

Runology in Scandinavia - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
There have been many theories launched over who created the runes. Some of these theories have more supporters than others, but they all have one thing in common. None of these theories can be proved 100%. No runic inscriptions, as we know the runes, can be dated with certainty to before 200 AD.
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.9% of users find it useful
Runology in Scandinavia
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Runology in Scandinavia"

Download file to see previous pages This alphabet uses only sixteen runes, and in many cases one symbol is used to represent many sounds.
Even when dealing with the Younger Futhark, there are several related but slightly different alphabets that vary by place and time. These can be roughly divided into two main types: the first is the "long-branch" or normal Younger Futhark, which are sometimes referred to as the "Danish runes". There is also a variant known as the "short-twig runes" in which the forms are simpler, also called the "Norwegian-Swedish runes".
"Shorthand" versions of these futharks appeared, as did hybrid variants. What exact form was used depended on exactly what date one is looking at, and what region. By the Middle Ages, as the language changed and so did the runic alphabet. Gradually symbols were changed, and new symbols adopted, resulting in a 16-rune alphabet plus extensions.
Most of the surviving Viking Age runic inscriptions come from rune-stones, which were erected as grave markers, memorials, and cenotaphs most often. By the middle ages in Scandinavia, runes came to be used occasionally to record Latin inscriptions (approximately 10% of all medieval runic inscriptions are Latin) and these usually invocations of saints or prayers.
Occasionally runes are found on various wooden items such as crosses. In Bergen, Norway, 110 "ownership tags" have been found, shaped in many cases so that they can be easily attached to goods or merchandise. Several runic "business memos" have also been discovered in Bergen, usually on a wooden stick which has been whittled flat on at least one side, with the most usual type having four flat sides for inscription. Since the runes occurred in a fixed order, carpenters and construction workers used them to label wooden roof beams for churches so that they went up in the correct order.
The oldest runes discovered in Norway date from 400 AD. They were based upon the 24 - rune Elder Futhark of Germanic origin. Two of the runes in the Elder Futhark, Pertra and Eoh, have never been found in any Norwegian rune text.
From 550 AD to 700 AD there was a transition period between the older 24-rune Futhark and the newer 16-rune Futharks. By the end of this period, the 24-rune Futhark went completely out of use and the 16-rune Futharks had prevailed.
Then, about 900 AD, the Shorttwiggs-runes were introduced from Sweden. Shortly thereafter, from 1000 AD, Futharks with more than 16 runes became more prevalent, as these were more consistent with the Latin alphabet. These types of runes were used in Norway up to 1800 AD.
After the end of the Viking period the runes became more and more in common use by ordinary people. A lot of rune inscriptions from the end of 1100's, 1200's and 1300's, the so-called town runes, show that it was not only the professional scribes who wrote runes. Even the ordinary people had learned the art of reading and writing runes because runes were the most accessible tool for them and were useful in their mercantile trading.
"Training sticks" have been found which were used to learn runes, showing that more people could write and read than one had previously believed. It is interesting that knowledge of runes ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Runology in Scandinavia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words”, n.d.)
Runology in Scandinavia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1534411-runology-in-scandinavia
(Runology in Scandinavia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words)
Runology in Scandinavia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1534411-runology-in-scandinavia.
“Runology in Scandinavia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1534411-runology-in-scandinavia.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Runology in Scandinavia

'Prison works and community sentences are a soft option.' Critically discuss

...? Prison works and community sentences are a soft option 28 March Prison works and community sentences are soft options Ascriminals continue to pile up in limited prison cells, there has been an increasing clamour from the public and organisations to employ softer options for punishment (Hough et al. 2008). The public is also concerned of the tough penal sentences that are provided to minors and criminals with small offences. For them, certain kinds of criminals and crimes do not deserve tougher punishments. They recommend soft options, which some studies prove to be effective in addressing rehabilitation purposes (Bouffard and Muftic 2007; Gibbs and King 2002). Nevertheless, the public and the government remain divided... Prison works and...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

Modernism in Architecture in Italy and Scandinavia: 1920-1970

...?Modernism in Architecture in Italy and Scandinavia: 1920-1970 0 Introduction The architecture movement in Scandinavia and Italy between 1920 and 1970 were largely underpinned by political, social and cultural conditions. This is especially true during the earlier part of the 20th century, the interwar periods and the period after World War II. For the Scandinavian countries, there was newfound freedom and prosperity in the early 20th century and on the opposing end, Italy, a fascist government that had close ties with Nazi Germany, had largely restricted architectural movements up to the end of the Second World War. Nevertheless, great architecture emerged from both sides. After the dust of the last war had settled down, architects were...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Scandinavia myself

...?Scandinavia Myself The term “Scandinavia” is used to represent the kingdoms of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. However, it is loosely used to refer to the Nordic region which includes Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and various other smaller autonomous regions and provinces in the Northern Sea. There were three considerations regarding the definition of what comprised Scandinavia; the languages, cultures, and history. Herein lay all the conglomerations that blend the three concepts to produce a widely accepted term Scandinavia. (New World Encyclopedia 2008) The earliest records of Scandinavian history date back to the Nordic Stone Age, from 10,000 B.C.E. to around 1700 B.C.E. As history advanced, this area gave...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Agriculture in Scandinavia

...174836 Agriculture in Scandinavia and the rest of Europe is known to have arrived from South West Asia in pre-historic times in the form of foreign colonists and their domesticated animals, seeds, and potted plants. With the fantastic archeological sources and research combined with impressive chronology, Northern Europe, Denmark and southern Scandinavia are a mine of anthropological information today. Study of transition in Southern Scandinavia became easier and more exciting as the region proved to be a laboratory of human prehistory. There are evidences that the early cultures in Middle East around 8000 BC used wild cereals for food which led to cultivated wheat, use of pottery, grains, and this is believed to have spread farming across...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Cancer of the Prostate

...Cancer of the Pro Cases of pro cancer has been significantly increasing and with this situation it is very helpful to provide information on the conditions of men who have prostate cancer. It is also very important to know the different ways in which this disease is managed so that we can assess, even with superficial judgment, the effectivity of these methods. This paper aims to provide enlightened understanding of prostate cancer and the men who have acquired this disease. In this paper, the pathology of this cancer will be discussed in order to have a thorough understanding of what a man with this type of cancer is undergoing. Also, it is important to discuss the psychological aspect of the lives of men with this condition... of the Pro...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Runic Alphabets in Scandinavia

Sadly, the meanings of these symbols and their purpose are now lost. Like runes, they were believed to be used for divination and they may have strongly influenced the magical function of later runic alphabets (Smith 1996).
Historians and anthropologists are uncertain about the early uses of runes. They may have been used as actual characters for writing. However, the name rune suggests that they were also used as mystical signs or symbols which possess powerful magic. Early Germanic literature bear testimony to the magical character of runes. The Edda, a series of poems, and folk songs to these modern days attest to the influence that runes have on humanity.
In fact, the supernatural powers of runes are said to have not...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

International Penology - Canadian Law

...International Penology/Canadian Law Roll No: Teacher: 26th March 2009 International Penology/Canadian Law Introduction The state of the penal system in practice amongst many nation-states in our day and age is the product of centuries of evolution of man’s quest to come out with a systematic structure that seeks to among other things to bring deviance all forms of criminal deviance under absolute check. In doing this, there is also a guarantee of social respite as it were for social conformists. Of course, this has not been without massive debate as to the most ideal path to pursue in the quest to bring deviance under check. A critical point worthy of note is that central to all the divisive debates as to how to deal... Penology/Canadian Law ...
9 Pages(2250 words)Term Paper

Cochlear implants history and its impact on deaf and hard of hearing

...Cochlear Implants Affiliation Cochlear Implants What Are Cochlear Implants? Cochlear implants are electronic devices that are designed to provide an amplified sensation to any person with deficit in the hearing process, and for that cause profound deafness. The amplification stimulates the hearing nerves inside the ear. Those utilizing the implants are not in a position to benefit from the hearing aids. The auditory nerves receive direct stimulation as the hair cells that do receive a motion effect to facilitate hearing are bypassed. The implantation simply acts to increase the hearing effect rather than curing the deafness entirely. A cochlear implant consists of internal and external parts that act to facilitate sound perception...
9 Pages(2250 words)Research Paper

Multiculturalism and cultural policy in Scandinavia

... Multiculturalism and Cultural Policy in Sweden By Lecturer’s and Introduction According to TCHIBOZO (2013), multiculturalism refers to a broad concept that dwells on evolution of the cultural diversity in a specific jurisdiction. It is often introduced and institutionalized by its selection settlement policies respectively. As a descriptive phenomenon, it refers to the selection policies that are based on the basis of the demographic set-up of a particular place (TCHIBOZO, 2013). This usually comes about endogenously through the amalgamation of more than two ethnic groups into a single jurisdiction, or exogenously based on the aspects of immigration from various jurisdictions around the globe. As a prescriptive phenomenon... Multiculturalism ...
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay

Discovering the Tragic Hero: Ancient and Modern

Although Aristotle outlines three requisite character traits that the tragic hero should possess, he qualifies the definition of the tragic hero with a set of events that must also take place before the hero can be considered truly tragic. Once this process is understood, it is easy to see how the sudden downfall of a mighty man, such as Oedipus the King from the play by Sophocles for example, would be dramatic and shocking to a public dominated by strict social classes. Moving into the more modern period, though, a subtle shift in the approach to tragedy began to take shape. The popular playwright William Shakespeare explored these concepts within his work as is demonstrated in plays such as Hamlet. In this play, the main charact...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Investigation of Aggression and Bullying

...Investigation of Aggression and Bullying The review of literature on this encompasses four major areas that are of interest to this research (a) definitions and theories of workplace bullying; (b) the relationship between personality and bulling behavior and personality and victimology; (c) characteristics of workplace bullying; and, (d) assessment and amelioration of workplace bullying. This literature review was undertaken because this is an important subject, not only because of the harm and suffering of individuals, but also because of economic factors involved. Bullying is believed to indirectly account for a loss of over 90 million dollars annually to U.S. companies, with other estimates being even higher. ( Harrison 2002... of...
6 Pages(1500 words)Literature review

Modernism in Italy and Scandinavia

...Variations on the Modern: Contextualizing the Modernism(s) in Italy and Scandinavia Although post-modernism attacked modernism claiming that it is an elitist, universalist and monolithic discourse that failed to respect differences; it can be said that post-modernisms discourse on modernism itself is totalizing and monolithic. Indeed, post-modernism portrays “modernism” as if it is a monolithic entity, disregards its variations and ignores various modernism(s). A closer study on the different interpretations of Modernism in Scandinavia and Italy between 1920-1970, could reveal that Modernism have been adapted to local conditions and incorporated into two different cultural and political contexts; thus, it is not as monolithic as post...
12 Pages(3000 words)Dissertation

Americas Prison System

... The Punitive Prison System in America The rate of imprisonment has grown in the United s in such a sustained and dramatic fashion over the past three decades that it has become necessary to begin essays with a statement on “mass” incarceration. By 2006, the rate of incarceration hit 0.1% for women and 0.9% for men, with the total number of prisoners in state and federal prisons slightly exceeding 1.6 million. Larger increases are also seen in the number of persons under correctional supervision. Such include individuals housed in prisons and jails and those living within the community on probate and parole (Alexander and West, 117; and Bonds, 418).The dramatic expansion in the correctional population was majorly the result... The Punitive...
13 Pages(3250 words)Case Study

Best Practices for Working in a Virtual Team Environment

...Organizational behavior Introduction Organization behavior is the study and analysis of human behavior in an organizational setup.Organization behavior can be analyzed at three different levels; at the level of individuals in the organization, at the level of teams in the organization and ultimately at the level of how the organization behaves. In accordance with individuals, different literature sources indicate that individuals behave differently when acting in an organizational role as opposed to when they are acting separately from the organization. Organization behavior in this regard is the study of individual and group behavior in an organization, which influence the performance within the organization (Robbins & Judge 2007...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Runology in Scandinavia for FREE!

Contact Us