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Intellectual Disability - Essay Example

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Autism in children have a combination of language and developmental disabilities often experienced with major difficulties in learning relations between objects and their graphic representations. Children with autism have poor auditory sequencing skills and imitation skills, thus, a special teaching and communication method is needed in order to transfer information to children with autism…
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Intellectual Disability
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Download file to see previous pages One of these is Picture Exchange Communication System or P.E.C.S. This method uses discrete trail training to teach children using visual cues. There are a lot of visual cues available but there is also a Compic-programme computer that one can use in order to teach a student with autism. P.E.C.S teaches to exchange a visual cue on things that the student wants to tell, or when asking for something, or even make comments. He is being reinforced back with snacks or a praise when communication is done and effective. (Marsden, 2002) For example, a student who wants to play with a teddy bear may hand his compic of a teddy bear and teacher will give him a teddy bear to play with. One important advantage of teaching P.E.C.S is that autistic children, when well reinforced, develop less behavior problems. They are happier, less frustrated and more satisfied since their needs are met and their sense of independence is more practiced using this kind of method. This method can easily be administered, not only by teachers, but moreso, of parents with autistic children. Parents need to manifest efforts as their teacher s are doing so the teaching methods are not limited to the walls of the school. The ability to initiate and maintain social interaction determines ability to enhance relationships between parents or caregivers and children with autism.
As shown in a study made by Stephenson and Dowrick (2005), responsitivity of parents to the behavior of children is recognized as a critical element in parent-child interaction and contributes not only to communicative development, but moreso on affective and mental development. It is highly important that parents and caregivers are educated on the teaching method of their child. Knowing the communicative content and appropriate usage of the context will greatly improve their communication with their child. A survey was made comparing between parents who can identify the signs, gestures, and body movements of their children but are not able to report sufficient detail on the context of the movements and its communicative content. and parents who have aside from identifying the body signs, gestures and body movements, know the context and communicative content of these movements. Results showed that parents who can identify the context of gestures and body movements are more educative of the communication method used on their child and tend to maintain an in-depth communicative relationship with their child. The behavior of the child is more satisfying because they are aware when to use certain gestures and at what context to use for.
While picture-object relations is difficult for children with autism, another research was done to identify which effective teaching method is viable for children with language and communication disability and autism. Two methods namely the error prevention procedure and error correction procedure were both tested. Results showed that error prevention based teaching gives fewer errors than error correction method. A notable feature of these studies is that learning such relations often presents a major difficulty for children with language and developmental disabilities and autism. If learning is successful, usually this is achieved only through repeated teaching of the relation over many sessions; ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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