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Financial Accounitng - Essay Example

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Summary
Revenues are realized when goods and services are exchanged for cash or claims to cash (that is, receivables). Revenues are realizable when assets received in exchange are readily convertible to known amounts of cash or claims to cash. Revenues are earned when the entity has performed its duties to be entitled to compensation.
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Financial Accounitng
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Download file to see previous pages Revenues are realizable when assets received in exchange are readily convertible to known amounts of cash or claims to cash. Revenues are earned when the entity has performed its duties to be entitled to compensation.
There are four main transactions of this kind:
Revenue from selling inventory is recognized at the date of sale (usually interpreted as the date of delivery).
Revenue from performing services is recognized when services have been performed and are billable.
Revenue from permission to use company's assets (e.g. interests for using money, rent for using fixed assets, and royalties for using intangible assets) is recognized as time passes or as assets are used.
Revenue from selling an asset other than inventory is recognized at the point of sale.
However following are the exceptions to above rule.
Revenues not recognized at the time of delivery
The general rule says that revenue from selling inventory is recognized at the point of sale, but there are several exceptions.
Buyback agreements
Buyback agreement means that a company sells a product and agrees to buy it back after some time. If buyback price covers all costs of the inventory and related holding costs, the inventory remains on the seller's books. There was no sale.
Returns
Companies, which cannot reasonably estimate the amount of future returns and/or have extremely high rates of returns, should recognize revenues only when the right to return expires. Those companies, which can estimate the number of future returns and have a relatively small return rate can recognize revenues at the point of sale, but must deduct estimated future returns.
Revenues recognized before delivery
Long-term contracts
This...
If buyback price covers all costs of the inventory and related holding costs, the inventory remains on the seller's books. There was no sale.
Companies, which cannot reasonably estimate the amount of future returns and/or have extremely high rates of returns, should recognize revenues only when the right to return expires. Those companies, which can estimate the number of future returns and have a relatively small return rate can recognize revenues at the point of sale, but must deduct estimated future returns.
This exception primarily deals with long-term contracts such as constructions (buildings, stadiums, bridges, highways, etc.), development of aircraft, weapons, and space exploration hardware. Such contracts must allow the builder (seller) to bill the purchaser at various parts of the project (e.g., every 10 miles of road built).
(3) The seller is expected to complete the project, then revenues, costs, and gross profit can be recognized each period based upon the progress of construction (that is, percentage of completion). For example, if during the year, 25% of the building was completed, the builder can recognize 25% of the expected total profit on the contract. This method is preferred. However, expected loss should be recognized fully and immediately due to conservatism principle.
According to Completed, contract method should be ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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