StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...

Pollution Control Policy - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Public opinion polls in the United States over the years consistently have noted a high level of concern over implementing air pollution controls to guarantee healthy air. The Clean Air Act of 1963 was an early Congressional response to the public demand for a federal assistance to solve a policy issue that originally was considered to be a state and local problem…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.6% of users find it useful
Pollution Control Policy
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Pollution Control Policy"

Download file to see previous pages Proponents and opponents of air pollution control policy now accept the protection of the public health as a political reality. The need for clean air is considered to be "a uniformly agreed-upon problem" or a "valence issue" (Baumgartner and Jones, 150). Nobody can be against the public good of clean air.
Despite general agreement of the public, legislators, regulators and the regulated that clean air is important, many urban areas in the United States struggle to meet national air quality standards as the EPA continues to set stricter emission thresholds. The EPA has tracked emission levels of six criteria pollutants deemed harmful to human health - nitrogen dioxide, ground level ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead - since 1970. However, the persistence of the ground level ozone pollutant (commonly called either smog or ozone) troubles those who wish to protect the public health. The adverse health effects of acute and chronic exposure to ozone are more fully documented each year. While levels of some criteria pollutants (i.e. lead and carbon monoxide) have declined significantly, levels of ozone and particulate matter have not (Smith, 29). The EPA determined in 1997 that 122 million Americans, or 46% of the population, lived in smog-plagued areas (Doyle, 348). The EPA reported in 2004 that 112 million people across the nation still lived in 68 metropolitan areas classified in nonattainment of the national air quality standard for ozone. Regulators describe long-term exposure to ozone levels above the threshold set by law as extremely hazardous to human health (Smith, 34).
From the critical perspective, there is a pressing need to establish radically new air pollution control policy. Contemporary business practice provides some important patterns in understanding policy new direction. It is evident that due to growing compliance costs, environmental expenditures have begun to play a major role in the policymaking decisions of companies. As a result, the environment is increasingly being used as a strategic tool to reduce cost and increase competitive advantage. Adequate and effective air pollution public policy should be largely based on firms' strategic needs to economize and being competitive.
BACKGROUND: CURRENT POLICY FAILURE
The continuing political controversy surrounding compliance with the provisions of the Clean Air Act suggests that the problem of national air pollution control is not going away either quickly or easily. Solutions to this challenging policy problem often appear partial and ineffectual. Four reasons for impaired policy effectiveness are suggested. First, the way in which federal regulators define and measure compliance with the law may not achieve consensus among the disparate participants in the implementation process. Even when participants do work together, gamesmanship among players who do not see themselves as equals on a level playing field may interfere with moving toward the same goal. The lack of consensus may continue until all the key players hold to some expectation of a common outcome (Bardach, 85). A second reason policy effectiveness may be impaired is due to the many participants in the fragmented federal hierarchy who represent multiple decision or veto points in the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Pollution Control Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1532443-pollution-control-policy
(Pollution Control Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1532443-pollution-control-policy.
“Pollution Control Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1532443-pollution-control-policy.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Pollution Control Policy

The Efficient Pollution Control Regulatory System

increase in price of bread as delineated in the diagram above by an increase in price of bread from P0 to P1 , this result to a new equilibrium in the market E1. (ii) Complementary goods are that usually consumed together (jointly consumed goods). In the case of Complementary goods when the demand r the price of the other good is decreased. Bread and butter are complementary goods, therefore they exhibit a cross elasticity of demand so when the price for margarine and butter is increased it result to a decrease in demand of bread causing a inward shift of the demand curve thus the quantity of bread demanded falls. PRICE D1 D0 S P2 P1 D0 D1 0 Q1 Q0 QUANTITY BREAD From the above diagram an increase in price of butter and margarine w...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

Pollution Monitoring and Control

...?Pollution Monitoring and Control Water Pollutants In order to lead a healthy life, it is important for individuals to consume clean water. The adequate consumption of clean water is considered as one of the basic needs of every person, although there are still a lot who do not have access to this commodity (Biswas, 2007). There are various sources of freshwater across the world, however these resources are in danger of being exploited and mismanaged not only due to human error, but also because of ecological degradation. The primary sources of pollution in freshwater is associated to untreated wastes being discharged irresponsibly, companies dumping industrial effluents, as well as the by-product of the run-off produced by agricultural...
25 Pages(6250 words)Essay

Tobacco Control Policy

Two thirds of the effects are to be felt in developing countries. Every year, around 443,000 people perish prematurely due to exposure to smoke from cigarettes. An additional 8.6 million individuals live illnesses caused by smoking. Despite the risks posed by cigarette smoking, an estimated 46.6 million adults in the US smoke tobacco today. Another 88 million non-smokers are exposed to dangers of cigarette smoking. Fifty four percent of these are children. It is predicted that by 2015, tobacco will account for 10% of the deaths globally (Mathers and Loncar 2006; WHO 2008). Many countries have not succeeded in controlling tobacco totally despite the various efforts made some scholars argue that this failure is motivated by the fac...
16 Pages(4000 words)Research Paper

Air pollution control

... Topic: Teacher: AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Introduction Air is polluted when amount of certain dangerous gases in the air exceed the limits. Dust and different sort of fumes also pollute the air greatly. Increase in air pollution causes a lot of harm to humans, animals and the natural environment. Ozone acts as shield against the ultra violet rays of the sun and protects all forms of life from direct exposure to such rays. Air pollution is the major cause of depletion of ozone layer in the atmosphere. Major type of air pollution is known as “smog”. Smog is combination of smoke and fog. Smog can be seen with a human eye. It is always brownish in colour and may be seen in some areas in the shape of haze. Automobile industry has seen a lot...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Gun control policy

...?Topic: Gun control policy Introduction The use of guns and fire arms is supported in the argument that it helps to defend against immoral thugs and criminals on the crime prospects. These criminals and thugs are creating threats to the society and safety of the people. But the main thing we should think about is reaching guns and fire arms in wrong hands could create threat for the society. In order to prevent the misuse of guns, government and bureaucracy should take certain measures. Otherwise it would create uncertainty. The government should control the usage of guns; license policy for guns should be strictly implemented. Drug addicts, mentally challenged people etc are the fundamental reasons to control the usage of guns. Gun...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Pollution Control Issues

... Assignment Application Paper Issue Networks Introduction The policy area of pollution control is rather interesting in discussing the socio-political significance of the two major political scientific applications. The first is the iron triangle and the second is the issue network(s). According to Tietenberg, there is a need to reform the pollution policy. Tietenberg had realized this as early as 1985 (1). However, until we examine the political scientific mechanisms in this sphere, it is difficult to understand the process as a whole even as we enter the second decade of 21st century. Introduction to Policy Area Pollution control is a major policy area of not only national but also global importance. We generally agree that pollution...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Pollution Control Measures

Consequently, this paper explores the merits of the three pollution control measures to establish the optimal pollution control measure that should be adopted by the countries. Discussion Benefits and marginal costs are compared to establish the amount of pollution that should be accepted in society. This is called the optimal pollution level, where the marginal social costs and marginal social benefits are equal. Similarly, the marginal cost of pollution damage and the marginal cost of pollution control are compared to establish when pollution control measures should be employed. Under this concept, pollution should be reduced if the benefits gained are higher than the control costs (Hoel, 1998). This is as demonstrated in the g...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Policy control process

...POLICY CONTROL PROCESS Be it a family or nation or even an international organization, the policies are formulated and controlled by power circles only. The factors that vest such power may vary depending upon the area. However, wealth, status and knowledge are the three main criteria that underlay the power lobby. Something like water and anger power also flow downwards. But the quantum of power when gauged at the end user level it is zero. This formula is maintained at the making of policies itself, because the end-users are left with the 'fruits' alone. The end-users namely the masses are not concerned with the policies but with the fruits only. The overall set up is termed polity. In a modern society the pivotal principle of polity...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Control of Water Pollution

... the cost of production and distribution has to be considered in relation to the availability of funds for undertaking the project. References FAO, 1996. Control of Water Pollution - FAO Irrigation and Drainage Papers - 55, Chapter 3: Fertilisers as water pollutants. Accessed November 10, 2010 http://www.fao.org/docrep/w2598e/w2598e06.htm FAO, 2003. Groundwater management. Accessed November 11, 2010 from ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/aglw/docs/wr25e.pdf FAO Report, 2008. Livestocks Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Accessed November 4, 2010 from http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2006/1000448/index.html IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2010. Chapter IV. Hydrology...
15 Pages(3750 words)Assignment

Birth Control Policy

...Running Head: Birth Control Policy Birth Control Policy Introduction Public policy refers to a deliberateand intentional course of action carried out by governments in order to address a certain problem. In an attempt to try to understand how different governments pursue a certain public policy it is important to identify different institutions as well as groups that actually form the policy framework. For this reason, several theories have been advanced in a bid to try and explain the process of public policy making. The theories are different from each other as they rely on very different parameters and basis for their analyses. For instance, some theories such as the public choice theory put more emphasis and focus at the level...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

United States Foreign Policy from 1945-1991

American Presidents presiding over some key events in history, such as the Cuban Missile Crisis, The Cold War, The Vietnam War, etc., were hindered from acting as public representatives due to pressure from the military-industrial complex. John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Ronald Reagan, George Herbert Walker Bush, and George W. Bush – all of them were subject to these opposing interests. But eventually, the corporate-government nexus proved too powerful; and in this sense, American Presidents after the Second World War were largely restricted and powerless to uphold their higher personal values. Most of the strategic moves on part of the United States after the end of the Great War were directly in response to an anticipated th...
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay

Budgetary Control and Costing System

Job costing and Process Costing are the two basic methods of costing. Job costing is suitable to industries, which manufacture or execute the work according to the specifications of the customers. Process costing is suitable to industries where production is continuous and the units produced are identical. All other methods are combinations, extensions or improvements of these basic methods.

1. JOB COSTING: It is also called specific order costing. It is adopted by industries where there is no standard product and each job or work order is different from the others. The job is done strictly according to the specifications given by the customers and usually, the job takes only a short time for completion. The purpose of...
17 Pages(4250 words)Case Study

What Are the Effects of Industrial Pollution to Nature in Turkey

It is observed that electroplating and chemical industries are responsible for the generation of a considerable portion of emissions that contain heavy metals, and may affect adversely on human lives and environment. On the other hand, sugar, pharmaceuticals, and textile industries are responsible for the generation of organic pollutants in the atmosphere. Refineries, fertilizers, stone mines, and thermal power units are mainly the causing sectors of contributing a substantial amount of air pollution in the Turkish atmosphere. In specific, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide are some of the main pollutants that are generated from the burning of fuels in the abovementioned industries in Turkey. Though vehicular sources also cont...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

Contemporary Issues in World of Politics Climate Change Policy

It is more than a particular problem of any specific community. In fact, climate change has a wider global nature compared to other environmental issues and it affects the people of every nation and boundary. Therefore, the issue of climate change has a far wider reach than the other environmental issues and it is an issue concerned with almost all the international communities. It is identifiable that national boundaries may attempt to prevent the movement of people and goods across the boundaries of the nation. However, when it comes to pertinent environmental issues such as climate change, these issues do not stop at borders, making them – some would argue – quintessentially global phenomena. “Climate change i...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

Weight Control as a Key to Self Improvement

To date, some 38 million Americans are “significantly heavier” than average, and because of this fact alone are targets for societal and institutional prejudice. People who are judged fat are discriminated against at work, school, in acquiring access to public accommodations, in applications for insurance, and access to adequate medical care. (Angier, 2005)

Many people take the words “obese” and “overweight” to mean the same thing. Actually, they are not. Overweight refers to an increased body weight (not necessarily increase in body fat) relative to height, above that which is generally accepted as a standard. (Capella University, 2004). Obesity, however, is “defined simply as...
16 Pages(4000 words)Thesis

The Issue of Water Pollution

Researchers use the following classification for water pollution: (1) Putrescible materials; (2) Heated effluents; (3) Inert materials; (4) Toxic materials; (5) Radioactive elements and compounds. Water pollution should be controlled by every state and society as it influences air, water, and natural resources and changes the global climate system/ Industrial use of water began to affect the quality of water in developed and developing countries. A waterwheel that supplied the power for grinding grain did no harm to a millstream; but as the industry began to use great quantities of water to process materials and flush away wastes, even greater pollution than sewage came into being. Sawmills dumped sawdust into rivers and killed of...
7 Pages(1750 words)Article

Information Security Policy of Organization

In the modern age of information technology, there are many threats created for organizational information. Organizations need a security model that has the capability to handle and secure our information reserves. Technical administrative safety /security measures like security plans, actions and procedures are the general practices for the organizational information security procedures. The attentiveness of producing actions is concerned by the organizations to an appreciably smaller level, on the other hand at the same time these are weighed up as being further efficient organizational actions than technical administrative ones. Information security encompasses organizational features, officially authorized aspects, institution...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

UK Employment Policy

Analysts explain that this situation is not simply because citizens don’t want to exercise this fundamental right, but largely because of the continued failure of the governments to institute an effective implementation of employment policies put in place (Howell, 2005). It has clearly been demonstrated by Mathew (2006) that the United Kingdom government has shown a lot of unwillingness in tackling the reported unemployment crisis.

Available research findings reveal that there are high unemployment rates among UK born ethnic minorities which show great diversities. According to a 2001 report, it is shown that unemployment rates amongst UK born men and women from black, Bangladeshi and Pakistani ethnic groups were...
9 Pages(2250 words)Case Study

Money Policy versus Credit Market

Financial institutions generally engage in securitization to enhance their profits by trading in the collateralized backed securities that generate high yield returns to the financiers. This nevertheless inversely and negatively affected the credit markets as their efforts to enhance their liquidity positions backfired. Consequently, the import of these monetary strategies has generated cyclical effects on the monetary system to the detriment of the financial system.

Normally, money markets demonstrate a more efficient allocation of credit whenever additional liquidity is injected into the system, which would otherwise display some undesirable distortions. Ultimately, the liquidity market is not easily susceptible to ex...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

European Union Policy: Turkey

...Running Head: European Union.... Topic: European union policy Order#: 377392 Topic: European union policy Profile of Turkey-history, geography and population: “Area: Approx 780,000 sq km (300,000 sq miles) Population: 71.9m (July 2008 est) Capital city: Ankara People: Majority Turks. Minorities recognised under the Turkish Constitution: Jews, Armenians and Greeks. Other ethnic peoples include Kurds, Circassians and Bosnians. Language: Turkish (official), Kurdish Religion: Muslim Currency: Turkish Lira (TL) Government: Parliamentary republic. Membership of international...
9 Pages(2250 words)Case Study
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Pollution Control Policy for FREE!

Contact Us