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Brain Imaging Technologies - Essay Example

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Summary
Brain imaging technologies are used to measure brain activity. This paper brings to light Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanning, a sophisticated imaging technique alongside functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique, event related potential, single cell recording, visual-spatial sketchpad and central executive.
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Brain Imaging Technologies
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Download file to see previous pages The variety of energies and specialties like radiology, medical physics, nuclear pharmacy, etc has led to hospitals and university research centers being called diagnostic imaging or radiology or the science of radiology. No name yet worked out is wholly satisfactory in the countenance of the vivid changes which have occurred, mainly in the last three or four decades. (Kuhn, 2004)
The power of contemporary computers to allow the speedy display of sectional images of the body by means of technologies such as ultrasound, computed tomography scan, single-photon emission topography, positron emission topography or magnetic resonance imaging has been cardinal to the upbringing of the latest technologies. Nevertheless, an equally great change has been that encompassing the move of medical imaging from the laboratory to the living room. Many Decades ago what was then radiological science poked a restricted series of diagnostic information to a referring medical doctor apprehensive to resolve diagnostic ambiguity between the diseases potentially able to report for a patient's indicators. In the beginning of the this century, imaging technology is used not only to spot the abrasion, and to do so more effectively, but to direct the needle used in its biopsy; not only to recognize a blocked vessel but to guide its dilatation as well.
FMRI AND PET
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging is based on the boost in blood flow to the local vasculature that comes along neural activity in the brain. This result in a consequent local drop in deoxyhemoglobin because the augmentation in blood flow occurs without an amplification of similar magnitude in oxygen extraction. Thus, deoxyhemoglobin is every now and then is known as a contrast enhancing agent, and serves as the source of the signal for fMRI. Functional activity of the brain obtained from the magnetic resonance pointer has verified known anatomically dissimilar processing regions in the visual cortex, the motor cortex, and Broca's area of speech and language-related activities. Further, speedily rising bodies of research document communicate to findings between fMRI and usual electro-physiological methods to localize explicit functions of the human brain (Romanelli, 2004). Consequently, the number of medical and research centers with fMRI capabilities and investigational programs continues to shoot up.
The major returns to fMRI as a technique to image brain activity related to a particular objective or sensory process says the the signal does not need doses of radioactive isotopes, the total scan time needed can be very less, i.e., on the order of 1.5 to 2.0 minutes per run (depending on the paradigm), and the in-plane resolution of the functional image is generally about 1.5 x 1.5 mm although resolutions less than 1 mm are likely. To put these pros in standpoint, functional images obtained by the earlier method of positron emission tomography, require doses of radioactive isotopes, multiple acquisitions, and therefore, longer imaging times. Additionally, the anticipated resolution of positron emission tomography images is much larger than the common functional magnetic resonance imaging pixel size. In addition, positron emission tomography usually requires that numerous individual brain images are joined in order to obtain a dependable ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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