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The core concern revolving around the interaction between female immigrants and Canada stems from health care capability. There are also many socioeconomic…
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AGING IMMIGRANT WOMEN IN CANADA Thesis: There are many factors to asses when confronting the concept of the aging immigrant female’s experience in Canada. The core concern revolving around the interaction between female immigrants and Canada stems from health care capability. There are also many socioeconomic factors that prevent these women from being able to work the jobs for which they are qualified. In the case of female refugees, this injustice becomes even more immoral, because these women are in Canada as a last resort. These women virtually have no rights and are discriminated against dually for being women and immigrants. This author intends to reveal how the Canadian socioeconomic structure exploits immigrant women for their tax contributions, while depriving them of necessary health benefits to live quality lives.
Annotated Bibliography
Akbari, Ather H. "The Benefits of Immigrants to Canada: Evidence on Tax and Public Services." Canadian Public Policy / Analyse De Politiques os 15.4 (1989): 424-435. Jstor. 3 June 2007.
The author’s thesis in this study is to asses the facts supporting the life-cycle theory, which basically asserts that most immigrants are young upon arrival to this Canada, and there presence in Canada benefits native-born Canadians through a tax transfer system. The author’s research confirms the theory through the assessment of 1981 Canadian Census of Population data, and comparing the consumption of major public services to the payment of taxes by average immigrants and non-immigrant households.
Beach, Charles M., and Chrsitopher Worswick. "Is There a Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women?" Canadian Public Policy / Analyse De Politiques os (1993): 36-53. 3 June 2007.
In this study, the authors seek to find if there is a pattern revealing that there is a double-Negative effect on the Earnings of Immigrant women. By double negative effect the authors are refereeing to a direct correlation between twice as low income for individuals who are both women and immigrants in Canada. They do find these two social stigmas to be a factor, but the patter does not stay consistent across the board, considering highly educated women, and immigrant men who they find are virtually exempt form this type of dual prejudice.
Boyd, Monica, and Deanne Pikkov. "Gendering MIgration, Livelihood and ENtitlement: Migrant WOmen in Canada and the United States." United Nations Research INstitute for Social Development os (2005): 1-56. 3 June 2007
The authors assess the conditions of economic appropriation for immigrants within Canada and the United States. The research is basically done for the United Nations. The sum of their research concludes that while both the United States and Canada encourage immigrants to come to their country, it is often for jobs of which they are extensively over qualified. They find this leads many Canadian immigrants to being deskilled, or being unemployed. On top of this, affirmative action fails to defend these individuals, due to what the authors credit as a lack of research and enforcement.

Boyd, Monica. "Immigration and Living Arrangements: Elderly Women in Canada." International Migration Review os (1991): 4-27. Jstor. 3 June 2007.
In this study, Monica Boyd, the same author of the previous work, researched the living arrangements of Elderly Women in Canada. This study done by Boyd in 1991 focuses mostly on the living conditions and circumstances of elderly immigrants. She finds that most older immigrant women who were raised in Canada from a young age, don’t tend to live with family. It is the women who migrate to Canada after the age of 65 who tend to live with their relatives. She evaluates the socioeconomic factors that correlate to this pattern.
Douglas, Debbie. "Immigrant Women and Health- OCASI Presentation." OCASI. 2007. 3 June 2007 .
This document is the result of notes taken from a presentation in which Debbie Douglas speaks on wellness of immigrant and refugee women in Canada. The basic focus of her speech pertains to the racial conditions influencing immigrant and refugee women in Canada. Not to justify the prejudice conditions to which these women are subjected, Douglas does point out that many of the refugee women are subjected to socioeconomic and sociodemographic prejudice against their will, considering that they had no choice but to flee to Canada. This does appear to make this type of discrimination a bit more immoral towards refugee women.
Gee, Ellen M., Karen M. Kobayashi, and Steven G. Prus. "Examining the Healthy Immigrant Effect in Mid- to Later Life: Findings From the Canadian Community Healthy Survey." (2000). 3 June 2007 .
The basic premise presented by these authors is that immigrants of Canada enter the country healthier than the general population. They argue that this trend changes as the time goes on and they assimilate into the Canadian health culture. To make an authentic assessment of this pattern, the authors study the health conditions of middle aged Canadian immigrants ages 45-64 and, who immigrated less than 10 years. They compare these findings to that of the same age group among Canadian-born individuals. The authors find that immigrants have a poorer overall health, but that it is a disadvantage that can be combated if the socio-economic, socio-demographic and health behavior is controlled.

Michalowski, Margaret. "Foreign-Born Canadian Emigrants and Their Characteristics, (1981-1986)." International Migration Review os 25.1 (1991): 28-59. Jstor. 3 June 2007.
In this article, Margaret Michalowski focuses her study on how Canada has encouraged immigration, both for economic growth, but to increase the population. Her main focus is that concerning the statistics on return immigration. This is a concept that basically relies on the quality of life constructed for immigrants of Canada.

Mulvihill, Mary A., Louise Mailloux, and Wendy Atkin, comps. Advancing Policy and Research Responses to Immigrant and Refugee Womens Health in Canada. 2001. 3 June 2007 .
This document is an overview on research pertaining to immigrant and refugee women’s health in Canada. It is designed to be a catalyst for discussion and action concerning this topic. It signifies the difference between migrant workers and refugees. The main themes that the article focuses on concerning these women is that of health status and context of immigrant women’s lives as well as the quality of health care services.
Richmond, Anthony H. "Immigration and Structural CHange: the Canadian Experience, 1971-1986." International Migration Review os 26.4 (1992): 1200-1221. Jstor. 3 June 2007.
The author argues that immigration is creating a much need change in the structure of Canadian culture. He supports this argument through charts and research assessing the diverse array of people entering into the country. The effect on the Canadian population with regards to the past ten years is very clear defined over the course of Richmonds research.
Samuel, T. J., P. M. White, and J. Perreault. "National Recording Systems and the Measurement of INternational Migration in Canada: an Assessment." International Migration Review os 21.4 (1987): 1170-1211. Jstor. 3 June 2007.
Samuel measures the extent to which migration has increased to Canada. He basically finds that there has been a dramatic increase ion migration to the country over the past ten years. This is also supported by the increase in refugee population which has become an inherent part of the Canadian culture and makeup of the population.

Wong, Julia, and Shirley Wong. "Cardiovascular Health of Immigrant Women: Implications for Evidence-Based Practice." Clinical Governnance: an International Journal os 8 (2003): 112-122. 3 June 2007 .
The authors focus mostly on the statistic relating to the contraction of cardiovascular disease in Immigrant women in other countries. The study mostly focuses on immigrant women who travel to Canada. It also specifically focuses on coronary heart disease. The authors find a high rate of coronary heart disease among women who were of South Asian origin living in Canada, and they found the highest stroke mortality rate of the women from Chinese origin. The statistic reviewed in this study were based on those found in the National Population Health Survey conducted in Canada. Read More
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