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Drug Profile Chart - Essay Example

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Address the four categories of depressants, stimulants, narcotics, and hallucinogens. For each category, identify specific substances within it, street names, methods of administration, addiction potential, paraphernalia, what effects you might observe in the workplace with a user of this substance, withdrawal symptoms, and treatment possibilities (be sure to list both homeopathic and allopathic where applicable)…
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Drug Profile Chart
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of Phoenix Material Drug Profile Chart Address the four categories of depressants, stimulants, narcotics, and hallucinogens. For each category, identify specific substances within it, street names, methods of administration, addiction potential, paraphernalia, what effects you might observe in the workplace with a user of this substance, withdrawal symptoms, and treatment possibilities (be sure to list both homeopathic and allopathic where applicable). Include a reference page citing your resources, and include sources other than websites.
DRUG
STREET NAME(S)
METHODS OF ADMINISTRATION
(include user paraphernalia)
POSSIBLE EFFECTS
(include physiological effects, addiction potential, and withdrawal symptoms)
treatment possibilities
(inpatient/outpatient, homeopathic/allopathic, etc.)
STIMULANTS:
Cocaine
Coke, C, Snow, Blow, Toot, Leaf, Flake, Freeze, Happy dust, Peruvian lady, White girl, Bump, Candy, Charlie, Crack, Rock, Snow, Toot
Orally
Snorting (tooting or blowing)
Topical application of the powder to the mucosa of the vagina or the male genitalia
Injected intravenously
Freebasing which involves treating the cocaine powder with a strong alkali and then ether. The "freebase" is then smoked in a water pipe or sprinkled on a marijuana or tobacco cigarette.
Paraphernalia include the coke spoon (rolled up paper used for snorting)
Stimulant of the central nervous system.
The initial euphoric effects are intense but subside quickly.
Users report an increased feeling of self-confidence and supercharged energy.
Also experience wakefulness, talkativeness, increased heart rate and blood pressure, dilation of the pupils of the eyes, a rise in body temperature, constriction of blood vessels, and a reduction of appetite.
Reduction of fatigue, enhanced mental alertness, and increased sociability.
Hallucination referred to as formication. Also known as parasitosis, it is the false perception that bugs (insects such as ants) or snakes are crawling under one's skin.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) combined with Motivational Therapy (MT) has proven to be effective to treat the addiction.
Cocaine vaccines are still on trial.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is researching modafinil, a narcolepsy drug and mild stimulant, as a potential cocaine treatment.
Twelve-step programs such as Cocaine Anonymous (modeled on Alcoholics Anonymous).
Drugs used to help in the de-addiction of cocaine include Bupropion, GBR 12909 (Vanoxerine), Rimonabant, Venlafaxine (Effexor)
Amphetamines
Uppers, Pep pills, Bennies, Whites, Dexies, Hearts, Speed, Meth, Crystal, Crank, Ice, Benzedrine, Dexedrine, Black beauty, Crosses, Hearts, LA Turnaround, Truck drivers, Uppers
Orally as tablets or capsules
Powdery or crystalline amphetamine can be snorted
Injected intravenously after being mixed with water
Smoked
Produce wakefulness and alertness, elevate mood and self confidence.
Reduces feelings of fatigue, depress the appetite, enhances concentration powers, induce a mild euphoria, and increase the desire and capacity to work.
There is also a noticeable increase in motor and speech activity, respiration, and blood pressure.
The most dramatic consequence is the experience of stimulant-induced toxic psychosis. This phenomenon is characterized by feelings of persecution, delusions, and hallucinations. During such an episode, the user is capable of thinking clearly and can recall relevant and extraneous facts leading to increased blood pressure, heart action, breathing, and metabolic rate.
Enables the users to work harder than necessary and last longer than expected. Unlike those of cocaine, the effects of amphetamines typically last for several hours after taking the drug.
Several cognitive behavioral interventions designed to help modify a patient's thinking and behaviors, and to increase skills in coping with various life stresses, have been found to be effective.
Recovering addicts benefit from support groups.
Treatment of the depression which is an after-effect of heavy usage is also required.
Antidepressant medications can be prescribed to combat the depressive symptoms frequently seen in methamphetamine withdrawal.
There are currently no medications available to treat the addiction
Methylphenidate
A prescription medication under the following brand names: Ritalin, Ritalina, Rilatine, Attenta, Methylin, Penid, Rubifen, Concerta, Metadate CD, Ritalin LA, Ritalin-SR, Focalin, Daytrana
Orally taken in the form of tablets or capsules
Transdermal patch
It helps reduce the symptoms of ADHD.
A central nervous system (CNS) stimulant.
Reduces impulsive behavior, and facilitates concentration on work and other tasks.
Increases ability to focus on tasks.
Easier for the user to concentrate, avoid distraction, and control their behavior.
Listening skills may improve and there is a possibility it stops fidgeting.
Treatment of addiction to prescription stimulants is often based on behavioral therapies proven effective for treating cocaine or methamphetamine addiction.
The first step is to taper off the drug's dose and attempting to treat withdrawal symptoms. The detoxification process could then be followed by one of many behavioral therapies or cognitive behavioral therapy
Recovery support groups have also been proven to be effective.
Antidepressants may help manage the symptoms of depression that can accompany the early days of abstinence from stimulants.
There are no proven medications for the treatment of stimulant addiction.
DEPRESSANTS:
Chloral Hydrate
Mickey Finn, Aquachloral, Aquachloral Supprettes, Noctec, Knockout drops
Orally either as a liquid that is mixed with alcohol (Mickey Finn) or in the form of tablets or capsules
Acts as a sedative and relieves anxiety.
Higher doses can depress respiration and blood pressure.
An overdose is marked by confusion, convulsions, nausea and vomiting, severe drowsiness, slow and irregular breathing, cardiac arrhythmia and weakness.
Withdrawal programmes will often involve switching from a short-acting to a long-acting benzodiazepine (usually diazepam, Valium) and then cutting down the dose very gradually.
Several cognitive behavioral interventions designed to help modify a patient's thinking and behaviors, and to increase skills in coping with various life stresses, have been found to be effective.
Recovery support groups have also been proven to be effective.
Antidepressants are used to help manage the symptoms of depression that can accompany the early days of abstinence.
Alternate therapy such as yoga has also been used.
There are currently no medications available to treat the addiction
Barbiturates
Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, Phenobarbital, Barbs, Reds, Red birds, Phennies, Tooies, Yellows, Yellow jackets, Truth serum, Downers, Blue heavens, Blue velvet, Blue devils, Nembies, Abbots, Mexican yellows, Purple hearts, Goof balls, Red devils, Lilly, F-40s, Pinks, Pink ladies, Seggy, Rainbows, Double trouble, Gorilla pills, F-66s (Names are often based on the colour of the diverted commercial product)
Orally taken in the form of tablets or capsules
Injected intravenously
Barbiturates are classified as ultrashort-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting, depending on how quickly they act and how long their effects last.
Abusers tend to prefer short-acting and intermediate-acting barbiturates which are generally prescribed as sedatives and sleeping pills.
Users typically describe feelings of decreased anxiety, a loss of inhibitions, and an increased sense of confidence.
Physical effects include slowed breathing and a lowering of both blood pressure and heart rate.
Barbiturates are intoxicating. During the stage after mild intoxication, the user's speech may be slurred and a loss of coordination may become noticeable. Stumbling and staggering are common.
When taken in high doses, barbiturates can cause serious side effects, including unpredictable emotional reactions and mental confusion Judgment becomes severely impaired and the user may experience mood swings.
Withdrawal programmes will often involve switching from a short-acting to a long-acting benzodiazepine (usually diazepam, Valium) and then cutting down the dose very gradually.
Several cognitive behavioral interventions designed to help modify a patient's thinking and behaviors, and to increase skills in coping with various life stresses, have been found to be effective.
Recovery support groups have also been proven to be effective.
Antidepressants are used to help manage the symptoms of depression that can accompany the early days of abstinence
Alternate therapy such as yoga has also been used.
There are currently no medications available to treat the addiction
Methaqualone
Quaalude, Sopor, Parest, Ludes, Mandrex, Quad, Quay
Orally taken in the form of tablets or capsules
Injected intravenously
Usual effects include relaxation, euphoria, and drowsiness, also reducing heart rate and respiration.
Larger doses can bring about depression, muscular miscoordination, and slurred speech.
An overdose can cause delirium, convulsions, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, vomiting, renal insufficiency, coma, and death through cardiac or respiratory arrest.
Withdrawal programmes will often involve switching from a short-acting to a long-acting benzodiazepine (usually diazepam, Valium) and then cutting down the dose very gradually.
Several cognitive behavioral interventions designed to help modify a patient's thinking and behaviors, and to increase skills in coping with various life stresses, have been found to be effective.
Recovery support groups have also been proven to be effective.
Antidepressants are used to help manage the symptoms of depression that can accompany the early days of abstinence
Alternate therapy such as yoga has also been used.
There are currently no medications available to treat the addiction
Benzodiazepines
Ativan, Halcion, Librium, Valium, Xanax, Candy, Downers, Sleeping pills, Tranks
Orally taken in the form of tablets or capsules
Injected intravenously
Reduced anxiety, feeling of well-being.
Lowered inhibitions.
Slowed pulse and breathing, lowered blood pressure
Poor concentration, confusion, impaired coordination, memory & judgment.
Sedation, drowsiness, dizziness
Withdrawal programmes will often involve switching from a short-acting to a long-acting benzodiazepine (usually diazepam) and then dosage tapering.
Several cognitive behavioral interventions designed to help modify a patient's thinking and behaviors, and to increase skills in coping with various life stresses, have been found to be effective.
Recovery support groups have also been proven to be effective.
Antidepressants are used to help manage the symptoms of depression that can accompany the early days of abstinence
Alternate therapy such as yoga has also been used.
There are currently no medications available to treat the addiction
Alcohol
Booze, Canned Heat, Firewater, Hard Stuff, Moonshine, Red-Eye, Rotgut, Tipple, Toddy, Brewskis
Orally
Snorting
Decreases in visual and hearing acuity.
Reduced sensitivity to pain
Feelings of elation.
Decreased fear, increase in risk-taking behaviors, reduced inhibitions.
Induced sleep because of alcohol's depressant effect
Increased urinary output
Dilated peripheral blood vessels in arms and legs. This blood vessel expander effect leads to a loss of body heat while producing a feeling of added warmth.
Increased swaying.
Interference with sensorimotor coordination, as in tracking a moving object.
Small doses of alcohol may facilitate sexual activity by helping one to overcome a lack of confidence or feelings of guilt. But larger amounts may spoil the capacity to perform or respond
Hangover
Self help groups are the most commonly sought source of help for alcohol-related problems, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), one of the most commonly known self-help groups, outlines 12 consecutive activities, or steps, that alcoholics should achieve during the recovery process.
Psychosocial Therapy such as Motivational Enhancement Therapy, Couples Therapy, Behavioral Therapy, Brief Interventions
Since nicotine and alcohol abuse are quite synonymous with each other there are new techniques that help treat them together which might be an effective way to help reduce dependence on both.
Drugs such as naltrexone (ReViaTM), Acamprosate, ondansetron (Zofran), Sertraline (Zoloft) have also been used to treat alcoholism
NARCOTICS:
Opium
Mother drug, God's Own Medicine, Khaskhas, Haha
Ingested
Smoked
Paraphernalia include the Opium Pipe
Produces a typical "high," a feeling of extreme well-being, and then drowsiness.
As the treatment for opiods based narcotics is similar they have all been clubbed together
Managing the withdrawal syndrome through detoxification.
The first step is to gradually reduce blood levels of the by using an opium based patent medicine to wean addicted patients from the more potent opioid drug. Eventually both drugs are completely withdrawn from the body.
Several drugs may be used in the detoxification process to help the addict become drug-free. Oral methadone, better known for its major role in maintenance therapy, is given in progressively smaller doses each day for one to two weeks.
Another medication, levo-alpha-acetyl-methadol (LAAM), may also be employed for acute detoxification.
Cold Turkey
Where the patient is deprived of the drug suddenly and restrained during the withdrawal process.
Narcotic Antagonists
Naltrexone and cyclazocine chemically prevent heroin from having any effect on the opioid-dependent person, except the shortening of the withdrawal syndrome. Naloxone (Narcan) is used frequently for the treatment of narcotic poisoning, that is, as an antidote for opioid overdose. A "partial antagonist," pentazocine (Talwin) provides effective analgesia but also possesses narcotic antagonistic activity. When taken orally, pentazocine has little potential for abuse.
Therapeutic Communities
This approach to therapy was based on the belief that only former addicts could break through the shell of projection, denial, and lying common to the narcotics addict. The ultimate goal of such residential communities is to enable an addicted individual to develop a socially productive, drug-free lifestyle.
e.g. Synanon.
Psychotherapeutic Approaches
In general, psychotherapy is any form of treatment that uses psychological, rather than physical, means or medications in helping patients cope with various mental problems and mental disorders.
Narcotics Anonymous
Many self-help groups have been formed in which recovering addicts offer help to others seeking recovery from opioid dependence. In Narcotics Anonymous (NA), members employ a twelve-step program similar to that of Alcoholics Anonymous.
Acupuncture
A form of alternative medicine has emerged on the health care scene. Specifically, its use in reducing the pain of withdrawal from heroin has been researched, as has the procedure's seeming ability to relieve chronic pain and to produce surgical anesthesia.
Morphine
Big M, Miss Emma, White stuff, M, Encel, Hocus, Unkie, Hard stuff, Morpho, Roxanol, Duramorph: M, Monkey
Orally taken in the form of tablets or capsules
Injectable forms
Smoked
Analgesic and sedative.
Relief of severe chronic pain.
Adjunct to general anesthesia
An antidiarrheal in chronic conditions
Codeine
Loads, Four Doors, Hits, Cilly, Juice, School boy, Codys, Empirin with Codeine, Fiorinal with Codeine, Robitussin A-C, Tylenol with Codeine, Captain Cody, Doors & Fours, Loads, Pancakes and Syrup
Orally via tablets or liquid preparations such as cough syrups
Injectable forms
Snorted
Taken as a rectal solution
Turned into freebase and smoked
As it is a less potent opioid it thus produces less pain relief, sedation, and respiratory depression
Also used as an antitussive
Heroin
Heroin, Smack, Scag, H, Black tar, Tootsie roll, Red rum, Brown sugar, Dope, Horse, Junk, Skag, Skunk, White horse
Snorted "Mainlining"
Intravenous Injection "Skin Popping"
Smoking "Chasing the Dragon"
The Heroin "Rush" an intense, brief period of euphoria
Reddening of the face and constriction of the pupils of the eyes.
Emotionally, there is a feeling that everything is fine.
Some people also report a reduction of aggressive tendencies, depressed appetite and sex drive, and a generalized decline in the level of physical activity.
Tensions are reduced; worries disappear; the sharp edges of reality are dulled.
Eventually, a period of stuporous inactivity follows.
Methadone
Dolophine, Amidone, Methadose, Physeptone, Heptadon,
Orally taken in the form of tablets or capsules
Injectable forms
Similar to Heroin without the 'heroin rush'.
Due to its extraordinarily high volume of distribution causes it to diffuse into other tissues in the body.
Used mostly as a cure against Heroin addiction by reducing the addict's craving for the drug.
Other
Synthetic opiods:
Analogues of fentanyl "China White, Apache, China girl, Dance fever, Friend, Goodfella, Jackpot, Murder 8, TNT, Tango and Cash"
Synthetic Heroin
Analogues of Meperidine
MPTP
MPPP
PEPAP
Demoral
Fentanyl's extremely potent, there is considerable risk of respiratory depression and a significant decrease in blood pressure and heart rate resulting in death.
While each fentanyl derivative mimics heroin's rush and tends to delay or forestall withdrawal analogues have caused sporadic outbreaks of death from overdose.
MPTP is extremely neurotoxic and attacks the part of the brain that regulates movement, resulting in permanent symptoms like those of Parkinson's disease
MPTP causes arthritis-like symptoms at first, such as stiffness, tremors, body seizures, and difficulty in speaking, and eventually results in a stiffening body paralysis
HALLUCINOGENS:
LSD
A, Acid, Black acid, Black star, Blotter, Blue cheers, California sunshine, Cubes, Cupcakes, Dots, Electric Kool-Aid, Ghost, Mellow yellow, Mickey's, microdot, Paper acid, Pearly gates, Pure love, Purple haze, Strawberries, Strawberry fields, Sugar, Sugar cubes, Sunshine, Vodka acid, Yellow sunshine
Oral consumption:
Powder pellets called microdots
Gelatin chips known as windowpanes
Most common method, thin squares of absorbent paper soaked in liquid LSD blotter acid or blotter.
Bulky carriers (objects and substances containing LSD), such as sugar cubes, animal crackers, gelatin chips, and tiny pellets
The effects of LSD are unpredictable and vary considerably from one person to another, and from one occasion to the next, several distinct, though somewhat subjective, phases with unique experiences may be anticipated.
The user perceives a release of inner tension.
Laughing or crying, a feeling of intense well-being (euphoria), restlessness, heightened awareness, and enhanced rapport with others.
Perceptual distortions, such as visual illusions and hallucinations especially visual perception.
Synesthesia may also occur.
Common physical effects include dizziness, weakness, drowsiness, nausea, rapid pulse, increased heartbeat and blood pressure, and loss of appetite.
Distorted sense of time the psychedelic experience seems to move slowly through the past, present, and future, which appear to fuse together.
The drug is not considered to be addictive.
LSD users show a trend of voluntarily stopping it over time.
Addressing the physical and psychological elements of dependency is the main part of treatment.
Psilocybin
Magic mushrooms, Shrooms, Purple Passion
Psilocybe mushrooms are generally eaten
The psychoactive ingredients of these sacred or "magic" mushrooms are psilocybin and psilocin, both chemically related to LSD
Effects human perception and cognition, similar to those caused by mescaline and LSD. The duration of the psilocybin trip is considerably shorter than that of an LSD trip.
Usually, the effects are similar to but less intense than those of LSD.
Psilocybin has developed a reputation for producing strong visual distortions, and it is believed to produce particularly vivid and colorful illusions.
Psilocybin is not addictive and addictions are rare
Poly drug addicts though frequently abuse hallucinogens as well
Tolerance to psilocybin mushrooms builds up rapidly and deters regular use.
Mescaline, Peyote
Mesc, Peyoto, Buttons, Devil's Weed, Plants
The fleshy green cactus tips the mescal buttons are dried in preparation for chewing and oral consumption.
Smoked
Others brew a peyote tea.
Also available as capsules, tablets, or in liquid form, synthetic mescaline usually
While mescaline induces altered perceptions, it tends to cause less mental or cognitive disorganization than is caused by LSD.
Neither peyote nor its mescaline derivative produces physical dependence.
Phencyclidine
Angel dust, Peep, Supergrass, KJ, Killer weed, Ozone, Embalming fluid, Rocket Fuel, Bacon, Hog, Wet, Illy, Wack, Squeeze, Water, Dust, Zoot, Peace Pill, Elephant tranquilizer.
Snorted
Oral
Smoked
Injected intravenously
Mild depression, then to stimulation.
A common initial experience has been described as a drunken state, a floaty euphoria with numbness of the extremities a result of PCP's anesthetic effect.
Users often appear to be "stoned" and display a staggering gait and slurred speech.
In addition, the PCP taker experiences a temporary state of depersonalization and detachment from his or her surroundings.
Feelings of strength, power, and invulnerability may coexist with this dreamy sense of estrangement.
Psychosocial Treatment
Life-style changes such as avoiding people, places, and things related to PCP use should be encouraged.
Narcotics Anonymous
CANNABIS:
Marijuana
420, BC bud, Hydro, Bud, Dope, Mary Jane, Ganja, Shake, Herb, Sinsemilla, Blunt, Grass, Joints, Pot, Reefer, Skunk, Weed
Smoked
Oral consumption
Inhaled
Paraphernalia include:
Bongs, Smoking pipes, Vaporizer
The psychoactive effects of cannabis, known as a "high", are subjective and can vary based on the individual.
General change in consciousness (altered perception).
Mild euphoria; feelings of well-being, relaxation or stress reduction; lethargy.
Increased appreciation of humor, music or art; joviality; metacognition and introspection
Enhanced recollection of episodic memory.
Increased sensuality; increased awareness of sensation; increased libido
Creative or philosophical thinking; disruption of linear memory
Paranoia, agitation or anxiety; potentiation of other psychedelics and increased awareness of patterns and color.
THC has analgesic effects that, even at low doses, cause a high, thus leading to the fact that medical cannabis can be used to treat pain
Medication and behavioral therapy, alone or in combination, are aspects of an overall therapeutic process that often begins with detoxification, followed by treatment and relapse prevention.
Easing withdrawal symptoms can be important in the initiation of treatment though there are no medications to alleviate the symptoms.
Behavioral Treatments help patients engage in the treatment process, modify their attitudes and behaviors related to drug abuse, and increase healthy life skills. Behavioral treatments can also enhance the effectiveness of medications and help people stay in treatment longer.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which seeks to help patients recognize, avoid, and cope with the situations in which they are most likely to abuse drugs.
Residential treatment programs can also be very effective, especially for those with more severe problems. The focus of the TC is on the re-socialization of the patient to a drug-free, crime-free lifestyle.
Self help groups such as Marijuana Anonymous use the basic 12 Steps of Recovery founded by Alcoholics Anonymous
Tetra-hydrocannabinol
Chemical responsible for producing the 'high' of cannabis
Hashish
Boom, Chronic, Gangster, Hash, Hash oil, Hemp, Gardaa, Charas
Smoked
Oral consumption
Inhaled
Paraphernalia include:
Bongs, Smoking pipes, Vaporizer, Shisha, Read More
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