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Antropology - Article Example

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1. Discuss four of the reproductive isolating mechanisms in regards to speciation and macroevolution. For each of the four terms you select, give the vocabulary word from the list and a nonhuman example to illustrate your example.
Speciation occurs when gene exchange become restricted…
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Download file to see previous pages This is evident in the disparate species of Manzanita shrubs, which thrive, in different altitudes. Another one of the isolating mechanism is behavioral isolation in which potential mates converge but refuse to mate, as they prefer individuals from their own species as evident in the mating rituals of the albatross. This is in contrast to mechanical isolation where mating and copulation is attempted but sperm transmission does not occur. The two-lipped flower, a species of sage, found in California is an example of this (Calow 379-380).
2. Define cephalic index and explain how it originally was used in an ethnocentric manner. Define eugenics and explain two specific ways (one human, one nonhuman) in which it can be used in a non-ethnocentric manner. Explain the relationship between polytypic, continuous variation and the vitamin D hypothesis.
The cephalic index was used to determine the intelligence of a person or her behavior based on the measurement of the skull or the cranium. The size of the cranium determined the superiority of the race. Proponents of Eugenics utilized this idea to forward race improvement through government control on marriage and family. The principles of eugenics can be used in non-ethnocentric manner, as to prohibit the marriage of two groups of populations that increases the possibility of genetic diseases (Jurmain and Nelson 118). In dogs or other mammals, such as race horses the principles can be applied for stronger breed. Yet, eugenics limits the freedom of the genes to function freely (Jurmain and Nelson 112). Polytypic species is composed of one population of species and homosapiens are one of them. Phenotypic variations are evident among humans as they exhibit differences in skin color for instance base on the environment or circumstance in which they live. One of these hypotheses the lightening of the skin color in higher altitudes, which cause the body to generate more Vitamin D said to prevent diseases such as rickets (Jablonski 585 - 623 )
3. Explain how the Hardy-Weinberg theory is related to both polymorphisms and balanced polymorphisms. Explain how the terms prions and BSE are related to the terms vector and pathogen.
The Hardy Weinberg theory or equilibrium is one of the main theories in population genetics, which also states that relative gene frequency stay constant from generation to the next. This is based on a mathematical model. This theory is related to polymorphism, as this is typified by the constant equilibrium with disparate alleles of the genes which at unvarying relative frequencies in a certain population. Prions are like pathogens because they result to diseases such as the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Hence BSE is a prion, which could be transmitted through a vector, contact or bite of an animal.
4. Explain the difference between acclimatization and adaptation, giving one example in humans for each. Explain Bergmann's Rule and Allen's rule and how they are related to high altitude and ossification of epiphysis/diaphysis. Define biocultural evolution, explaining both the example of lactose intolerance and sickle cell anemia for this term. What are pleiotropic genes and how do they affect sexual dimorphism and transgenerational problems
Adaptation is the means humans utilize to meet the challenges of their environment whereas ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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