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COX-2 inhibitors block the action of an enzyme used throughout the body to make a large and diverse family of compounds called prostanoids that are involved in regulating myriad physiological actions, including inflammation, blood clotting and protection of the stomach lining from the destructive effects of digestive acids (Brown, 2004). Congress is questioning why the FDA didn't force Merck to study Vioxx's heart risk sooner. Merck is facing hundreds of lawsuits and potentially billions of dollars in damages from Vioxx. Pfizer, the makers of Celebrex, which is a rival of Vioxx, have not yet pulled the popular painkiller off the market, although Celebrex also increases cardiovascular diseases. Celebrex, approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998 for arthritis pain, has been prescribed to 27 million Americans and is the world's most widely prescribed arthritis drug ("Pfizer cites", 2005).
Zoloft, Prozac and Paxil, known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or SSRIs, are antidepressants and act by enhancing the signals in nerves that transmit messages with serotonin, a neurotransmitter. , which are chemicals that are used to relay and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell, are removed from the synaptic cleft by a process called reuptake. These drugs act on the neurotransmitter serotonin within the cell by delaying the reuptake process, thereby increasing the serotonergic effect. The regulators at the Food and Drug Administration ordered that all antidepressant drugs carry a prominent ‘black box’ warning to alert doctors that the medications increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior among children and adolescents.
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According to the paper a majority of the early counseling theories such as Psychoanalysis, Individual Psychology, Gestalt, etc. come from Eastern Europe, in particular Austria. As time moved on, we see that additional theories have developed in the United States and other parts of the world which makes psychology an ever developing and diverse field.
Mood disorders result from physiological abnormality in neuro circuits within the glopus pallidus and lateral ventricles of the brain (Marchand & Yurgelun-Todd, 2010). These disorders have also been linked to an abnormal gene which predisposes individuals to psychosis.
The word depression derives from the Latin deprimere, which means to fall down, and it was introduced in the 17th century to depict one's state of mood (Gilbert 1999). “English has several words that reflect a state of mood such as sad, blue, low, black, or joyless (Miller & Reynolds, 2002).
Psychopharmacology was presumed to be more scientifically and research based as compared to psychotherapy. It was believed that, if there was a list of therapies which used controlled research methods and claimed success in treating disorders, then psychotherapy could also claim to be research and true science based.
Based on the perspective of Psychopharmacology -defined as "the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry"1, the research of new psychopharmacologic drugs that can help reduce anxiety and stress has exploded over the last years.
“Heroin” is a highly addictive drug that is illegally used by many people. It is the most widely abused drug and the most rapidly active among the opiates. The United States is being swept by this powerfully addictive
It looks at the real word situation hence data is representative of the occurrence towards the subject matter.
4. The changes are due to body dissatisfaction more in girls than in boys. Girls tend to shy
It is administered into the body through various routes which include, oral, intravenous and intradermal among others.
Its primary components act on the brain and it can reach peak levels in the bloodstream rapidly based on how it is taken.