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Etiology and management of lower leg pain - Essay Example

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Pain is a response of the body to some unpleasant and at times to a dangerous stimulus to the body. This is a defense mechanism possessed by the body to alarm the related tissues and organs o the body. Inflammation is a mechanism through which human body passes through some stages in response to an insult to the body…
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Etiology and management of lower leg pain
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Download file to see previous pages Pain has got various types. One individual may respond differently to different types of pain and at the same time different individuals may respond differently to the same type of pain.
Lower leg is a portion of the body which not only supports whole of the body but also helps in moving the body from one place to another. Weight bearing process may cause some damage to the lower leg structures but when some one is running then this damage may be multiplied. The damage could be related to soft tissue injury, like: muscle, tendons or to the bony tissue ranging from just a stroke to the compound fracture. Various types of trauma and the eventual result of this injury vary depending upon the force and angle of the force applied. As all these traumatic episodes pass through an inflammatory process so the affected individual feels pain accordingly.
Although the iliotibial band extends from the ileum to the condyles of the tibia but after the damage caused due to any factor it results in lower leg pain. This is the most common cause of lateral knee pain among the athletes. The affected structure is the bursa surrounding the iliotibial band. The injury usually occurs in those individuals who perform tasks which involve repetitive flexion and extension activities, for example: athletes of soccer, aerobics etc. The presentation of the case is with severe pain in the knee and lower leg.
Management:
Local steroid injection

Achilles tendon
The causes of Achilles tendinopathy are still unclear and the explanation is given on the basis of some theories which link the pathology to a variety of mechanism or factors, like: overuse stresses, poor vascularity, lack of flexibility genetic characteristics, hormonal or metabolic factors and female sex. This topic is one of the areas of lower leg pain which have been studied extensively. Excessive loading of the tendon is no doubt an important factor involved in the injury; even damage can occur to the tendon if the stress to the tendon is within physiological limits.
Management
Conservative
Avoidance of training program which end up in this injury
Gentle static strengthening
Correction nwith orthotics
Cryotherapy
Therapeutic ultrasound
Pharmacologic support
Low dose heparin, wydase etc
Surgical treatment of the tendinopathy
Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS)
This is one of the commonest causes of lower leg pain which manifests itself in the anterior compartment of the leg due to over usage.
Tibial stress fracture
In the lower leg, either of the two bones, tibia and fibula, can have stress fracture. Usually, the fracture appears on the lower end of the two bones on medial side.
Predisposing factors are:
Continuous muscle contraction ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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