The purpose of this study is to describe some of the main knowledge management and learning organization programs and strategies such as Boisot's I-Space Model, Linking Knowledge and End Results strategy by Zack and others…
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According to Beckman, (1999) the best way to organize knowledge is through some debate. The most powerful and supportive classifications of KM is based on a blend of knowledge accessibility (knowledge stored or located where and in what form?) and knowledge transformation (the flow of knowledge from one place to another and from one form to another). Innovation or knowledge happens as a result of the flow and alteration of knowledge.
Based on the “knowledge matrix” of Nonaka & Takeuchi knowledge is classified as either explicit or tacit, and either individual or collective. They state that knowledge is transformed from one form to another i.e., socialisation (from unspoken to unspoken, where an individual acquires tacit knowledge straight from others through shared experience, observation, imitation and so on); externalisation (from tacit to explicit, through expression of tacit knowledge into explicit concepts); combination (from explicit to explicit, by a systematisation of concepts drawing on different bodies of explicit knowledge); and internalisation (from explicit to tacit, through a process of "learning by doing" and through a verbalisation and documentation of experiences).
Boisot's I-Space Model
Boisot (1998) proposes a model of knowledge asset development which has an extra dimension to the model developed by Nonaka and Takeuchi. His model introduces abstraction, meaning that knowledge may become inferred to different situations.
In Boisot's strategy, knowledge assets can be situated in a 3 dimensional space distinct by axes from "uncodified" to "codified", from "concrete" to "abstract" and from "undiffused" to "diffused". He then suggests a "Social Learning Cycle" (SLC) which makes use of the I-Space to mold the energetic flow of knowledge through a sequence of 6 stages:
It is clear from both Boisot's and Nonaka & Takeuchi model that the course of growing and increasing knowledge assets inside organisations is constantly changing.
APQC International Benchmarking Clearinghouse Study based on business process
Karl Wiig (1997) and the APQC (American Productivity and Quality Center) acknowledged 6 budding KM strategies. The strategies mirror the diverse natures and intensities of the organisations concerned (Wiig, 1997; Manasco,
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This paper would analyse the learning outcomes. This topic will span over the subtopics like decision making, role of information and information systems and knowledge management. Then I would explain how the simulation helped me in terms of my real life experience at work.
Two types of knowledge are emphasized in KM practices. Tacit knowledge is ingrained in the minds of employees and is difficult to articulate1. Most knowledge is tacit in nature and is developed over time through trial and error. Tacit knowledge is often underutilized as organizations lack inbuilt systems to harness it.
Instead, such a development is facilitated by certain factors. With the growth of organization and structuring of the company, individuals tend to assume more strength and power and their rigidity subdues the organization’s capacity to learn as it grows.
According to the paper emphasizing the importance of knowledge, contemporary organisations are adopting business models that provide knowledge products and services. Many other organisations have made knowledge products and services as their key business strategies, and have developed comprehensive mechanisms to create, gather, share, store and apply knowledge to their day-to-day operations.
Consequently, the concept of knowledge management has recently emerged as one of the most essential organisational paradigms in contemporary organisational studies.
Knowledge is nowadays increasingly becoming an ultimate competitive advantage either replacing or complementing such traditional sources of success as technologies, marketing mix, and often even financial resources (Malhotra (1998).
Knowledge is the key capital in any organization today and this has been demonstrated by the design of IT systems that integrate knowledge management tools in their software and models. (Wilson, 2002)
In this regard, the study of an IT system integrator that uses knowledge management in a country like Pakistan will be relevant to the globalization trends as well as the study of an Asian and developing country.
There are two notable things, however, that contributed to their conduct and condition; the type and degree of social system within the society, and the affluence of the woman's family. Of all the classical societies, those based upon Islamic law offered women a better opportunity for occupational and family contribution because of their status under the law as well as the writings of the prophet Mohammed himself.
This is because organisations continuously need to change internally, as well as adapt to changes they meet in their operational environment.
The learning organisation (LO) has been defined as an organisation that facilitates the learning of all its members and continuously transforms itself' (Pedler, Bourgoyne and Boydell, 1991).
This is the method in which Weltanschauung, the German word for world view, is the core component which influences the problem situation to learn the criterion by which the qualitative operative has been alleviated or solved. It is important to understand that because SSM takes the route of the world view, there is not a hard and definite solution as seen in other research and solution techniques.
The author states that the idea of testing is among the key contributions that psychology has made to the society and tests that are developed cautiously act as a source of valuable information for making decisions in educational, clinical and a variety of other settings. Tests are broadly applied in educational settings.
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