We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Nobody downloaded yet

Hybridoma technology - Essay Example

Comments (0)
Hybridoma is a hybrid cell that is produced by injecting a specific antigen into a mouse, collecting an antibody-producing cell from the mouse's spleen, and fusing it with a long-lived cancerous immune cell called a myeloma cell. Individual hybridoma cells are cloned and tested to find those that produce the desired antibody…
Download full paper

Extract of sample
Hybridoma technology

Download file to see previous pages... This proposal is still being pursued today since antibodies combine specificity (the ability to exquisitely discriminate diverse harmful molecules) and affinity (the ability to tightly lock onto those targets) with the ability to recruit effector functions of the immune system such as antibody- and complement-mediated cytolysis and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC).
In the alternative, a "toxic payload" (such as a radioactive element or a plant toxin) attached to the antibody can be accurately delivered to the target. This makes them suitable for homing in on and killing cancer cells, infectious diseases as well as modulating the immune system by binding and inhibiting or enhancing its regulatory molecules thereby curing autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
White blood cells (B-lymphocytes) of the immune system in higher organisms produce antibodies which are large, glycoprotein molecules. The function of the antibodies is to recognise and attach matter harmful to the organism, thereby marking it out for other components of the immune system to destroy. The organism makes millions of different types of antibodies; each designed to bind a surface feature (the epitope or antigenic determinant) on the foreign body (the antigen). The most common human antibody, IgG, is shaped like the capital letter "Y", IgE, IgD, IgA, IgM are other types of antibodies
Overtime, antibodies have been produced from the serum of animals. Serum contains a cocktail of antibodies (polyclonals), some of which will attach to the antigen. Since when Emil Behring, in1890, published a paper demonstrating that diphtheria antitoxin serum could protect against a lethal dose of diphtheria toxin; antisera has been used to neutralise pathogens in acute disease as well as prophylactically. Antisera is also widely used in vitro as a diagnostic tool to establish and monitor disease. The problem with using antisera for treatment is that it leads to "serum sickness" - basically the patient's immune system reacts against the harmful proteins causing fevers, rashes, joint pains and sometimes life-threatening anaphylactic shock. Also, the serum is a crude extract containing not only the antibodies against the disease-causing pathogen (often at low concentration), but also unrelated antibodies (plus other non-antibody proteins).
In 1975, Csar Milstein and Georges Khler at the Medical Research Council's (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) in Cambridge (UK) developed a way to produce "custom-built" antibodies "in vitro" with relative ease. They injected rodent antibody producing cells with immortal tumour cells (myelomas) from the bone marrow of mice to produce a hybridoma. A hybridoma has the cancer's ability to reproduce almost indefinitely, plus the immune cell's ability to make antibodies. Once screened, to isolate the hybridomas producing antibodies of a determined antigen specificity and required affinity - and given the right nutrients - a hybridoma will grow and divide almost indefinitely, mass-producing antibodies of a single type (monoclonals). This resembled a production-line with batch consistency for Ehrlich's "magic bullets". For this breakthrough these scientists (Csar Milstein and Georges Khler) won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1984.
Immuno-cytochemical staining has ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Not only has it made communication easier but has given a whole new perspective to its core idea. Twenty years back one could not have perceived the idea of communication through texts and video calling. It has been the inception of cell phones which has given this new dimension to communication today.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
From the onset, technology was created by human beings for their uses and especially to make their work easier. At times, human beings tend to be self-centered and make technological projects that only benefit them, but in general, the aim of human beings always pursuing technology is to make their lives better in general.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
MIMA-123 evaluation
This is the case for the Dombrock blood group antigens where reliable specific antibodies are not yet available. The Dombrock blood group was first identified in 1965
20 Pages(5000 words)Essay
In order to do this, I need to be adequately qualified to be able to hold a job in the industry. Although I would be prepared to take any job that is offered to me, I prefer to be able to do something that I love. Technology excites me and I feel that I
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Bell initially provided the benefits of using a rake, including the body’s natural need to use it as a form of physical activity. Accordingly,
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Technology is always advancing. Therefore, in future, it is expected that technology will be more advanced than it is today. This will thus enhance different areas of life, with regard to efficiency and effectiveness. This
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
It has also led to growth in the agricultural and food production; today farming has shifted from the traditional way of farming to the use of machines in farms. Additionally, there
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Technology has brought about shortcuts and short term fix methodologies which has largely been a point of benefit for all and sundry. It has made people realize where they can always
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Clinical immunology (ELISA TYPES)
This is a fast method since there are no secondary antibodies added. However, other signal amplifications can be missed and these are often obtained through using secondary antibodies. The
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Remarkably, the technology is beneficial since it has revolutionized the way people connect since they provide a lot of convenience due to ease of communication.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Let us find you another Essay on topic Hybridoma technology for FREE!
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us