Health promotion is considered as a process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health, and public health professionals are struggling hard to achieve health improvement as the objective of public health actions have now expanded beyond infectious diseases control…
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At present human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is posing new challenges before healthcare providers world-wide, even though numerous programs have been formulated to prevent the spread of this disease from the very beginning of its identification. However, the epidemic is yet to be conquered, and, hence, evaluating the cost-effectiveness of various programs is crucial to assess the efficiency of different health interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention that is in operation since detecting the HIV epidemic. Since resources are scarce compared to the health care needs those responsible for allocating resources need to prioritize immediate challenges for getting maximum benefit from any given budget, as the basic aim of any healthcare system is to maximize the health and welfare of the population
Evaluation of any program, policy, or an activity is integral in assessing their effectiveness and anticipated final outcomes, as well as for modeling future strategies of any activity. Though there may be contextual difference in every activity the evaluation techniques applied are similar. However, the research approach should be appropriate to the subject context of the activity to be evaluated and the evaluators must scrutiny the reasons for evaluation and validate available information. The evaluation of a program generally involves "assessing one or more of five domains: (1) the need for the program, (2) the program's design, (3) its implementation and service delivery, (4) its impact or outcomes, and (5) its efficiency." (Rossi, Lipsey & Freeman, 2003, p.18). Success of a program evaluation depends on the evaluation plan drawn up by an evaluator that pragmatically addresses "evaluation purposes and audience, the nature of the program being evaluated, and not least, the political and organizational context within which the evaluation is conducted" (Rossi, Lipsey & Freeman, 2003, p.18). Evaluator's ability to understand the questions posed by the evaluation sponsor and stakeholders and capacity to negotiate with these will help refine and structure evaluation plan as well as streamlining evaluation questions. Above all, an evaluator must consider the intended purposes of the evaluation, whether it is for optimizing program's effectiveness, what are the benefits derived from the program, knowledge generated from the study, and identify any hidden agenda and conflicting interests of stake holders.
Since the first cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in the United States in June 1981 there was rapid increase in AIDS incidence, and an estimated 1.3 to 1.4 million persons in the United States were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as 816,146 cases of AIDS and 467,910 deaths were reported to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) during the twenty years period from 1981 to 2001. (Advancing HIV prevention: New strategies for a changing epidemic---United States, 2003).
Identifying HIV as the cause of AIDS in 1983 facilitated the development of tests to detect the virus, which led to new initiatives and programs for quantifying the HIV epidemic and formulating prevention strategies. Though there are many effective strategies to control the spread of HIV, such as: blood screening services, promotion of condoms, mass media strategy for disseminating information to the general population with
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As more research was carried out on the disease, it was found that the disease did not only affect men who had sex with other men but also patients who received blood transfusion, intravenous drug users, heterosexuals, bisexuals and new born babies were also being affected by the disease (Perrin, Kaiser & Yerly, 2003).
This vulnerability gets poorer as the disease continues(Felissa R. Lashley, 2009 ). “HIV is transformed in numerous ways, such as anal, vaginal or oral sex, blood transfusion or contaminated hypodermic needles, switch over amid mother and baby during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding.
3002, 1). By 1986, Uganda had been one of the first African countries that collaborated with the World Health Organization [WHO] in drafting its own national aids control program consisted of 13 AIDS control programs (Alwano-Edyegu and Marum 1999, 7). The government and the Ugandan citizens’ combined efforts, supported by international organizations have paid off well, with Uganda today as the sole country in the world to have reduced significantly HIV sero-prevalence rates, specifically among young adults (Konde-Lule 1995, 31; World Bank [WB] 1999, 92; Boerma et al.
AIDS until now has claimed more than 25 million lives globally (Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2006). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Under this condition progressive failure of the immune system in humans allows life-threatening infections and cancers to grow.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is defined as a set of symptoms and infections resulting from the damage to the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Wiess 1993).
The works of Gottlieb (2006),
The author of the essay states that HIV is the virus that causes the gradual collapse of the immune system that enables AIDS diseases such as Pneumocystis pneumonia, Kaposi’s sarcoma and a host of other conditions to affect the patient. It should be pointed out, risk behaviors for receiving HIV are unprotected sex and needle sharing among injectable drug users.
Immunodeficiency is a condition that leaves human beings susceptible to infection by the natural defect of the immune system or by viral infections like AIDS (Leksmono, 2008). In the UK, the death of a 49-year-old man in Brompton Hospital, London in 1981, due to a very weak immune system, may have been the first recorded case of HIV/AIDS.
ol will be related to the identification of the person who is going to provide the information, about the efficacy of monitoring plans adopted by the government for controlling HIV/AIDS, recommendations of suitable strategies that can be adopted to control HIV/AIDS and economic
The author states that HIV/AIDs epidemic is an enormous issue in developing countries like Indonesia, Africa, and Philippines. African is worst infected with HIV persons, and the use of condoms has sown less fruits. There is still hope when it comes to the HIV phenomenon, as several ways of preventing the infectious disease are being measured.
Poverty could account for many infections, which are felt in Africa today. It has been quite challenging when dealing with the infectious disease since the medical services in Africa are declining, poverty is mounting, and a vast sphere of gender inequality has consumed the continent.
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