StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Values and Reality - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
The question `Is value a part of the world?’ is completely redundant and it is in

the nature of subjectivity which needs to be altered in perspective…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.8% of users find it useful
Values and Reality
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Values and Reality"

VALUES The question Is value a part of the world' is completely redundant and it is in the nature of ivity which needs to be altered in perspective. Values change from
individual to individual, community to community. Values that are cherished by one
individual may not be a guideline for another individual at all. Indeed the values which
underline the character of one community may not be accepted at all by another
community. The concept of values is entire subjective in nature.
Values are not there in the world for any observer, one without our human interest
in morality. The test for an objectivity of a property is whether it used in judgements for
which there are developed standards of rational argument and whether they are needed to
explain aspects of our experience that are otherwise inexplicable. John McDowell thinks
that both these test moral properties are in a sense "subjective" but not in a way that
undermines their reality.
The connection between McDowell's general metaphysics and this particular
claim about moral properties is that all claims about objectivity are to be made from the
internal perspective of our actual practices. Characterising the place of values in our
worldview is not, in McDowell's view, to downgrade them as less real than talk of quarks
or the Higgs boson.
Mackie, In Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong Part I, acknowledges that
subjectivism is often thought of as a kind of skepticism. However, he claims that
"subjectivism" is also used to refer to a first order normative view. It is the view that each
individual ought to do whatever that individual happens to think he should. The term
"subjectivism" has also been used to convey different second order views as well.
There are second order linguistic claims about the nature of moral language, of
moral terms and moral judgments. Mackie feels the type of second order subjectivism is
really a report or expression of the subject's feelings or attitudes. He differentiates his
own moral skepticism from this view on two grounds - one that his is a negative claim,
and two, that his thesis is ontological, not linguistic. Mackie observes that there is a
connection between these differing forms of skepticism; Many people get attracted
towards the linguistic type of second order moral skepticism because they already
embrace the negative ontological attitude towards objective value.
Mackie's skeptical claim that there are no objective values is consistent with the
idea that values are subjective in the sense that they are agreed upon or shared. It may
also be that such values can be made universal without being objective. He also
distinguishes between objectivism about values and descriptivism. Descriptivism is a
view about moral language, according to which, the meanings of moral terms are purely
descriptive. It does not involve evaluative or prescriptive component.
The descriptivist about moral meaning holds that someone can judge an act cruel
without condemning it.Mackie points out that the mainstream European tradition of
moral philosophy since Plato holds that values are objective and also that moral
judgments refer to these values and are essentially motivating or action-guiding. This
mainstream view of moral discourse implies that descriptivism is false because it implies
motivational externalism, whereas the mainstream tradition embraces motivational
internalism.
Mackie observes the objectivity of moral judgments in the sense that they can
employ intersubjectively valid standards. Since those standards themselves are not valid
because they reflect in turn objective values, he maintains his fundamental moral
skepticism about the objectivity of values. Value is part of the world and subjectivity is
not distinct from it in the traditional understanding.
Sources -
1. Mind Value and Reality - John Mc Dowell (Harvard 1998)
2. Needs, Values Truth - D. Wiggin's (OUP 1998)
3. Ethics : Inventiing Right and Wrong Part I Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Values and Reality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1507865-values-and-reality
(Values and Reality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1507865-values-and-reality.
“Values and Reality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1507865-values-and-reality.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Values and Reality

Virtual Reality

...? Virtual Reality There is a massive development and rampant innovations in the field of computer science and Information Technology. One of the most significant innovations is the development of Virtual Reality (VR) system. Since the invention of this technology, there have been various transformations in technology through its applications. These applications range from educational to health systems. However, the technology also has harbored some disadvantages due to its application. This paper delves into the topic of Virtual Reality. It examines some of its uses, its disadvantages as well as challenges that hinder its effective application. Introduction Virtual reality is a three-dimensional environment. One can only view...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

Values

...?Values Values A ment of values for a criminal justice agency Every employee should have Strong work ethics Dependency and responsibility should be always observed Employees should possess a positive attitude Employees should exhibit adaptability Honesty and integrity should be upheld at all times Employee should work under minimum supervision and be self-motivated Employees should be have Motivation to grow and learn Every employee should have Strong self confidence All employees must uphold professional behavior at all times All employees are to show loyalty at all times Identify your core values The following are the core values for a criminal agency; responsibility, sense of duty, respect, love, positive attitude, keeping time, loyalty...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Physical Reality

...Is All of Reality Physical To understand this question let us first define what is meant by the term 'physical'. Physical refers to that which we experience through our five senses: those of sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell. And what is reality Is there an objective reality When I look at the firmament and view the sun and the stars, do they not exist in the forms they do, irrespective of who looks at them When I keep a chair and a table in front of me, are they not chair and table for everyone Even if someone else calls these by some other names, or uses them for some other purposes, do they not bear the same shape and form for all who see or touch them The answer to the above questions is a 'no'. There is no objective...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Reality TV

... in order to promote measures for introducing changes required for individual freedom (CSA, 2001a) as well as employing precautions ensuring that nothing would occur that may violate human rights and conciliate human rights (CSA, 2001b). On 3rd October 2001, the CSA argued the broadcasters to act conscientiously in terms of principles governing the freedom, lenience, individual dignity and admiration for republican values while admitting the fact that the majority of the broadcasting media had displayed limitation and control (CSA, 2001b). Reality Show in UK and Human Dignity In UK, the Big Brother show, broadcasted on Channel 4 and S4C in Wales, is the popular reality TV show that is in the air. There are few special versions known...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Reality Television: A Silent Epidemic Contorting Human Values

...Reality Television: A Silent Epidemic Contorting Human Values Eighty years after the black and white television was born in 1927, almost 99% of households in America own a television set today and 66% of these homes have three or more TV sets (TV Free America, AC Nielsen, Co.). Since then, several types of shows that aim to inform, educate, document, entice, empathize and entertain viewers have been introduced. And now, with the advent of reality shows, local television currently imbibes its viewers with a new wave of harmful and suggestive satires that pose as entertainment, reality-mirror shows and induce a subliminal desire for material wealth and unneeded physical improvements and worldly ventures. According to an AC Neilsen, Co...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Virtual Reality

...Running Head: VIRTUAL REALITY Impact of Virtual Reality on the Society and number] s Name] Impact of Virtual Reality on the Society Introduction Despite the disagreement Virtual Reality has awakened the world in enormous ways and the society should not stay dubious of the tremendous potentials it has to bring in an optimistic way a large technological development. The word "virtual" is rooted with "virtue," an expression whose actual meaning is strength. Currently, "virtual" has turned out to illustrate something that possesses core and consequence without actually having any form of itself, something not quite substantial or having a physical form, but with a quantifiable crash on the actual. Thats certainly true of when we talk about...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

Teen oriented dating reality shows are undermining the values of our youth

... on the impacts of the reality television programming on the society, with majority perceiving it have negative influence especially on the youth. With emphasis on teen-oriented dating reality shows, this paper seeks to differ with the assumption that these reality shows undermine the values of the youth in society (Bilandzic and Rossler 296). For the purpose of this paper, The Bachelor and The Bachelorette dating reality shows will be the primary example throughout the paper. Contrary to these assumptions, the paper reiterates that dating reality shows actually demonstrate a number of beneficial values to individuals, especially the youth. Summary Overview According to some portion of scholars, claiming that a television show has negative...
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay

Values

... Values Values are beliefs or ideas that people believe are important to them in the way one lives or works. The values determine ones priorities and are the measures that tell one’s direction of life. Values influences a person’s behavior and attitude. Whenever one has a challenge, they can always go back to their values and make the best decision out of it. Defining personal values makes one discover what is important to them. Values help and influence the decision-making process. The best way to do this is to look back at one’s life and identify situations when they felt proud or happier of their actions. What is it that they were doing? Moreover, who were the people who contributed to the happiness? What specific factors contributed...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Reality Therapy

... in integrating research on multiculturalism in therapy, much is still waiting to be done. Therapy educators carry out research on what multiculturalism is rather than how to endorse it. There is also a need to look into clinical practice in the section of multicultural therapy. Rogerian person-cantered approach and reality therapy for a multicultural population Theoretical orientations significantly affect many counsellors’ helping techniques. Even if the assumptions of therapists around the world are often independent of the dominant theoretical orientations, some values underlie these theories and can easily affect the counselling interaction. Furthermore, cultural encapsulation is an issue for therapists and the entire theoretical...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Reality Check

...Introduction One of the greatest novelists from Columbia, Gabriel Garcia Marquez (1985), once said, “What matters in life is not what happens to you but what you remember and how you remember.” Consequently, life is defined as the condition distinguishing animals and plants from inorganic matter and it includes the functional activity, reproduction, capacity for growth and continual change preceding death. Two authors Frank Kafka (1883-1924), Gabriel Garcia (1927-2014) and poet Andre Breton (1896-1966) set out to explore perceptions surrounding the world from early years all the way to the current generation. One Frank Kafka, in his book Metamorphosis (1900) shows the difficulties of living in the modern society, which has... of the greatest ...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Values and Reality for FREE!

Contact Us