Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Perspectives of Early Psychology - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Psychology has existed for centuries under the label of philosophy. Some of the oldest writings attempted to integrate man's evaluation of mind, spirit, and body. Yet, modern psychology has looked deeper into the mind in an effort to pull psychology into the realm of science…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.4% of users find it useful
Perspectives of Early Psychology
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Perspectives of Early Psychology"

The Evolution of Modern Psychology Psychology has existed for centuries under the label of philosophy. Some of the oldest writings attempted to integrate man's evaluation of mind, spirit, and body. Yet, modern psychology has looked deeper into the mind in an effort to pull psychology into the realm of science. Modern psychology, at its heart, is the study of how we solve problems and why we act the way we do. A study of it's evolution and the changes brought about by new thinking and research can be helpful in understanding the state of psychology today.
An early psychologist, Pavlov, developed the Behaviorist theory of instruction and stated that learning is based on a change of behavior resulting from external stimuli, usually a reward or punishment. Behaviorists, recently discounted as questionable, do not account for the inner workings of the mind, as behaviorists believe that they are beyond the realm of understanding. Cognitive theorists, however, look deeper into the mind to attempt to discover the reasoning behind our actions. Cognitive theory had its basis in the Gestalt psychology of Wertheimer, Khler, and Koffka (Hufnus, n.d.). However, Cognitive theory diverges from Gestalt in that it promotes the idea that solutions to problems are much like formulas. Gestalt views the whole problem. Cognitive sees the independent parts. The Cognitive process goes through a series of steps that are not consciously understood by the subject. In this way Gestalt and Cognitive are similar. It is somewhat like having an automobile. Gestalt knows we can get from point A to point B by operating the car. However, Cognitive looks inside the workings of the car to determine how it goes from point A to point B. Both Gestalt and Cognitive rely on the study of the mind, but Cognitive attempts to look deeper and more scientifically into the thought process.
Sociocultural psychology is a relatively recent entry in the realm of psychology, though may have the greater influence on our understanding of behavior and problem solving. Psychologists are increasingly concerned with how human conduct is embodied in social and cultural patterns. Socioculture, as its name implies, borders on the social sciences. Similar to Cognitive, it concerns itself with external stimuli that predict behavior. Rogoff contends that learning and development must be studied in the context of the social group (cited in Sawyer, n.d., p.8). This varies from the Behaviorist and Cognitive, which placed a greater emphasis on the individual.
Cognitive theory sometimes seems at odds to sociopsychologists who contend that all learning, and therefore behavior, is based on environmental factors. According to sociopsychologists, the basis for learning is family, groups, and community where learning occurs through examples of behavior, dependent on environmental factors. Again, Cognitivists would disagree, contending that behavior does not have its roots in learning, but learning occurs and knowledge is attained without necessarily affecting behavior. Cognitivists, unlike sociopsychologists, believe environmental factors may have an affect on our capacity for information, but the environment does not affect the evaluation of that learning. Learners will disregard the environment and assimilate the important information. Sociopsychologists disagree with this notion and see the environment as influencing the meaning and intent of the information (Cognitive learning theory, n.d.).
Behaviorism, Cognitive, and Sociopsychology are three steps in the evolution of our understanding of psychology. Though they seem at odds at times, each has its merits and each has its shortcomings. Trying to understand the mind requires more than one theory. While we do react to the reward and punishment model of Pavlov, as is evident in education and the workplace, our higher understanding of social interaction requires a more detailed analysis. As Harzem (2004) says, "The behavior of man, with all of its refinement and complexity, forms only a part of the behaviorist's total scheme of investigation" (p.1). Cognitive theory helps explain the process we go through to reach a conclusion while Sociopsychology imparts the methods we use to acquire the information necessary for interaction with the world around us.
Cognitive learning theory (n.d.). Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
Harzem, P. (2004). Behaviorism for a new psychology: What was wrong with behaviorism and what is wrong with it now [Electronic version]. Behavior and Philosophy, 1-7. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
Hufnus, B. (n.d.). Gestalt theory. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
Sawyer, K. (n.d.). Sociocultural psychology. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Perspectives of Early Psychology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Perspectives of Early Psychology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from
(Perspectives of Early Psychology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Perspectives of Early Psychology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words.
“Perspectives of Early Psychology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Perspectives of Early Psychology

Organizational Analysis from the Perspectives of Organizational Learning, Psychodynamics, and Complexity Theories

Transform the vision into people and you have an organization.
Organizations are groups of people coming together for a certain purpose – whether it is dictated by blood, law, social affiliation, common interests or whatever reason that brings people together. What makes this “mix” of people rich is the variety of personal psychodynamics each member brings in. By Psychodynamics, I mean individual personalities, family dynamics, social network and other personal issues.

Although a group develops its own culture, as Wilfred Bion, a renowned psychoanalyst has thoroughly worked on, it is not immune to the surfacing of its members’ individual psychodynamics every so often. This usually creates te...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

The Early Years Curriculum: A Comparative View

It is designed to meet the diverse needs of all the children so that most would achieve the desired goals or exceed them. This has also been promulgated as law, since March 2002 and it has been declared that the above mentioned early levels goals and objectives could be achieved for each area.A National Consensus on the course contents of the early learning goals were set out in the Curriculum Guidance for the foundation stage. The Foundation stage has been started in the schools during 2002-03.This foundation course has 12 summary scales which have to be completed by the child who is being granted Government funds for study education by the end of his/her term, at this Foundation Stage. The legal aspects governing this Foundation...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

The Importance Uses, Perspectives of Strategic Management

Strategic management refers to the art of planning your business at the highest possible level. It is the duty of the company’s leader (or leaders). Strategic management focuses on building a solid underlying structure to your business that will subsequently be fleshed out through the combined efforts of every individual you employ. 

Answering the first question requires serious thought about what your ultimate goals are for the business. What are you trying to make happen? What are you attempting to facilitate or enable? What is the best possible outcome your company can aspire to?

The strategy is of critical importance in today's business environment of rapid change and unforgiving competition. M...
12 Pages(3000 words)Term Paper

Psychology: Development of Gender

The changing nature of gender roles in the 21st century is discussed and some practical examples of these changes being investigated. Then, it will critically analyze the role media plays in shaping human behavior. Lastly, the report will look at how gender roles are acquired through the observation of male and female social role models.

The awareness of who we are and whether we are female or male is an important aspect of human development. Some eminent psychologists have raised concerns about how we come to be identified as male or female. They ask, does the process of identification of who we are starts right from the moment the child is born? Or does she/he learn about its identity from the social environment in wh...
15 Pages(3750 words)Research Paper

Cognitive Psychology And Its Implications

Cognitive psychology attempts to understand the nature of human intelligence and how people think. The study of cognitive psychology is motivated by scientific curiosity, by the desire for practical applications, and by the need to provide a foundation for other fields of social science. (Anderson, 1990:3) Looking into the history of the world at large, it becomes evident that almost all human societies have been socially stratified from the most primitive Paleolithic and Neolithic ages to the most modern contemporary era of hi-technology and computerization. The social division of individuals is on the basis of caste, class, creed, clan, community, region, race, religion, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic statu...
10 Pages(2500 words)Case Study

The Discourses of Psychology and History

Psychology as a field of discourse relies heavily on empirical evidence; being a social science, this empirical evidence is still subject to much subjective analysis. This is not to say that there is no room in chemistry for any sort of subjective analysis, but there is not nearly as much leeway as there would be in social science like psychology. This is the reason why there is such a contrasting difference in the way that theories are phrased in hard sciences and social sciences.

Concerning written assignments in psychology courses, there is a definite, approved approach that must be followed. Generally speaking, psychology paper assignments are not supposed to contain quotations from other papers; the findings of ano...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Key Concepts of Counseling Psychology

Humans were born with the capacity to know and the freedom to choose between good and evil.  Given this freedom, we are responsible for our decisions, actions, and thoughts. Consequently, there is a need for therapy when an individual is unable or unwilling to accept personal responsibility for emotional problems.   We are not perfect therefore we make imperfect decisions. Therapy in this integrative approach attempts to get the client to live at peace with themselves in spite of mistakes. However, the level of peace depends on the extent to which one allows the environment to influence one’s inner world. Individuals, therefore, have the capability to improve themselves. Nonetheless, we have the tendency to develop...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Reflecting on Personal Life Experiences Utilizing Sociological Perspectives

The experience would touch on my initiation to my very first educational experience and developing my primary group in school.

Secondly, I would reflect on my studies during elementary years in a small exclusive private school in Vietnam. The next phase I consider of great significance in my academic experience is the privilege given me during my 9th grade to 12th-grade studies in a relatively different culture, in Melbourne, Australia.

Finally, a milestone in this journey through life is the recent migration to the United States to complete my higher education with Chemistry as my major in Evergreen Valley College, San Jose, California.

The evolution of sociology could be traced to the development...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Management Theory and Practice in the Early Childhood Education Industry

...Management Theory and Practice in the early childhood education industry This Report applies management theory into practice in the early childhood industry, especially in the context of women leaders. Management issues play a significant role in the academic sector, because early childhood professionals need higher levels of motivation in order to avoid burnout . As pointed out in a study by Osgood and Halsall (2007) where they carried out research to examine the position of women in leadership or management positions, a “glass ceiling” exists for women in the academic setting, which could significantly impair motivation. Since many of the individuals employed in the early education sector are women, addressing this issue is even more...
6 Pages(1500 words)Coursework

The Key Macro Factors that Have Influenced the UK Grocery Retailing Industry since the Early 1960s

...1. Assess the key macro factors that have influenced the UK grocery retailing industry since the early 1960s. The concept of organisational change is inherently intertwined with external threats and opportunities, which businesses must adapt to as part of strategic planning to continue long term growth. Senior and Fleming argue that the concept of organisational change has many faces, namely “convergent changes and transformational change that is organisation wide and characterised by radical shifts in strategy, mission values and associated changes of structures and systems” (In Thompson & Martin, 2005, p.41). Moreover, Johnson et al highlight that external macro-economic factors intrinsically impact strategy management and without...
13 Pages(3250 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Perspectives of Early Psychology for FREE!

Contact Us