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Korean War - Essay Example

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Summary
The Korean War was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. In North Korea, the war is called the Fatherland Liberation War, in South Korea it is referred to as 6.25 War, from the date that it started. While the USA refers to it as the Korean Conflict, mainly because they do not want the US Congress to declare it as a war and go through the necessary actions related to this declaration…
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Korean War

Download file to see previous pages... The initial cause was that at the World War of 1939-45, at the Allied Summit meeting it was decided that Korea would be given independence. Korea had been a Japanese colony since 1910. Korea was to be occupied by the Soviet Union till the 38th parallel, the division line, and USA would occupy the South. In the North, the Soviets backed a Stalinist regime under their client Kim Il-sung and created the North Korean Peoples' Army. They had the use of Russian artillery and tanks. In the South, the situation was very chaotic and resulted in the Americans backing the administration under the leadership of Syngman Rhee. The South wanted a united nation, thus they had very little artillery and tanks compared to the North. Many incidents took place along the 38th parallel but a fully fledged attack was launched by the North Korean People's Army on the 25th of June 1950. The South was much unprepared for the attack. (Micheal, 2001)
Stalin was assured by Kim Il-sung that he could capture the Southern part. Stalin thought of this as an opportunity to continue the cold war without directly getting involved. This would also cause discomfort to America, which is what Stalin wanted. In the South, Syngman Rhee boasted about attacking the North in 1950, this gave the North a very good reason to invade the South before the South took any action against them. (History Central, n.d.)
The Domino theory was what bothered President Truman; he thought that if one country fell to Communism the rest will too. He thought if Korea became communist it would capture Japan. In his opinion supporting South Korea would indirectly fight Communism and their competition with the USSR would finish. The American National Security Council issued a report (NSC 68) recommending that America abandon 'containment' and start 'rolling back' Communism. (Claire, n.d.)
All these causes started the Korean War and resulted in the country being divided into two parts along the 38th parallel. The War was divided into five phases. In the first phase the North attacked the South and the Americans were taken aback. At this time they captured most of the South. The Americans asked for military assistance and American troops were sent in, who reinforced the Southern Army at Pusan. The second phase started right after when American General MacArthur led an army of troops at Inchon, near Seoul. The North Korean People's Army has to retreat as the General came up behind them, the South recaptured their territory. The General invaded the North on the 7th of October 1950. They captured almost up till the Chinese Border. They assumed that they would be back home by Christmas. The third phase started with this. The Chinese were threatened by this and attacked the army led by the General. The Chinese had modern weapons and a dislike for the Americans. They recaptured the North and advanced into the South, there were more than half a million Chinese troops involved in this attack. (Claire, n.d.)
The fourth phase came with more American troops landing; this led to the American pushing back the Chinese. Many lives were lost during this time. In March 1951, the American troops reached the 38th parallel line again. The last and final phase was when the President told the General to stop; the General criticized the President and was court marshaled. In 1953 the American ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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