StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Hypothesis Tests for Means and Proportions - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
The test we will conduct will be one tail test (left tail test). Left tail test means that we are we have the condition of the population mean less than 12 ounces as our alternative hypothesis, whereas, the null hypothesis would be testing the weight of each bag of chips being either equal to or greater than 12 ounces…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.9% of users find it useful
Hypothesis Tests for Means and Proportions
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Hypothesis Tests for Means and Proportions"

Assumption: Since the sample size is 30, According to Central Limit Theorem, the distribution of the sample mean tends to be normally distributed. We shall estimate the sample standard deviation in place of population standard deviation, in estimating the standard error.
Type of Test:
The test we will conduct will be one tail test (left tail test). Left tail test means that we are we have the condition of the population mean less than 12 ounces as our alternative hypothesis, whereas, the null hypothesis would be testing the weight of each bag of chips being either equal to or greater than 12 ounces. There is the one tail test because the condition of inequality will not be sufficient to reject the null hypothesis, which means that the null hypothesis will be rejected ONLY if the weight if the bag is less than 12. Thus, due to the condition of less than in alternative, it is one tail test, simple words; both inequalities (greater than and less than) do not support the idea to make complaint, rather only one inequality (less than) can fulfill the task.
Mathematically, it can be stated as:
Null Hypothesis (Ho) : Population mean of the bags of chips () 12.0 ounces
Alternative Hypothesis (Ho) : Population mean of the bags of chips () < 12.0 ounces
Type I error:
Type I error is defined as the error of rejecting a null hypothesis when it is true. In this case type error would be the error of inferring that the bags are less than 12.0 ounces (less than claimed value) but in reality its weight is either 12.0 ounces or even greater.
Level of Significance:
Level of significance refers to the probability of type I error, that means a fixed probability, in statistical hypothesis testing, of wrongly rejecting a null hypothesis Ho, when it is true. It is represented by .
In our case,
= 5 %
It means that we have fixed the 5% chances of making the type I error.
z-critical value:
-1.645 (as given)
Decision Criteria:
We will reject Ho, if z-test statistics < -1.645
z-test statistics:
_
z-test statistics = x -
.
n
= 11.9 - 12
0.4
30
= -0.1/ (0.4 / 5.48)
= -0.1/0.073
= -1.37
Conclusion:
At 5% level of significance, there is insufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Thus we fail to reject the claim of the weight of potato chips being 12.0 ounce or greater.
Conclusions in terms of the business problem:
As evident from the given problem, the investigator had a doubt that the claimed weight of the potato bags is greater than the actual weight. To verify the authenticity of this claim, he collected some 30 bags and found the mean of those bags, which came out to be 11.9 ounces. Although the mean weight came out to be lesser than the claimed one. But the real question or logic behind hypothesis testing is that we want to ascertain that whether it would be appropriate to consider the difference of 0.1 ounces from observing 30 bags with the standard deviation of 0.4 a 'significant' one and infer this difference as on the entire population. Thus the above shown hypothesis test showed that how significant is the abovementioned difference, if we allow the 5% of the probability of type I error. The result of the test shows that the acquired value of z-test statistics is in the non-rejection region (above -1.645). Thus, we can say that the difference in weight found from the sample of 30 bags is not significant to infer the difference on the entire population (all bags). Thus, it is not recommended to complaint for the lesser weight.
References
Spiegel, M., & Lindstrom, D. (2000). Statistics: Based on Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Statistics by Murray R. Spiegel. Boston: McGraw Hill. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Hypothesis Tests for Means and Proportions Research Paper”, n.d.)
Hypothesis Tests for Means and Proportions Research Paper. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1505863-hypothesis-tests-for-means-and-proportions
(Hypothesis Tests for Means and Proportions Research Paper)
Hypothesis Tests for Means and Proportions Research Paper. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1505863-hypothesis-tests-for-means-and-proportions.
“Hypothesis Tests for Means and Proportions Research Paper”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1505863-hypothesis-tests-for-means-and-proportions.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Hypothesis Tests for Means and Proportions

Projective Tests

Purpose The theory behind projective test is that when a person is asked a question, the answer would be socially determined and consciously formulated. As such, they would not reflect the unconscious attitudes of the respondent. The respondent could neither consciously recognize deep seated motivation nor express it verbally as desired by the questioner. Projective tests aim at influencing subjects to express their deeper thoughts than those that can be got by asking explicit questions. These tests do not have a structure and are intentionally vague so that the odds revealed by the response of one’s perception of the world would be enhanced. The possible responses with these tests are broad hence their difficulty in standardizati...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Alternative hypothesis or testable hypothesis

Testing of hypothesis involves the precautious formation of two assertions. These assertions are the alternative hypothesis and null hypothesis. The null hypothesis states that there are no observed effects for the experiment conducted. In a mathematical interpretation of this hypothesis, the researcher uses an equal sign to indicate no relationship. This hypothesis is signified by H0. It is the hypothesis that the researcher aims at changing by testing the alternative hypothesis1. On the other hand, the alternative hypothesis reflects that there can be an observed effect in a research experiment. It is also the experimental hypothesis. In this mathematical computation, there is the use of inequality symbol that indicates there is...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Personality Tests

... tested. Different situational exceptions to the personality traits may also happen. Because of this it is totally inappropriate for a business to only look at a potential candidate’s personality profile, as that may not give a one hundred percent picture of who they really are. The profile could paint one picture, and then the person could in theory be different in the given work situation, and the employer would have given them no chance to test so. Also, totally ignoring the person’s past experience is completely absurd. The person’s past experience would be the most useful tool in helping to determine if they were a strong candidate or not, instead of relying on statistical numbers that might not truly represent how a person works. 2...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Statistical Tests

...Psych test 2 In this study the researchers used the repeated measures test to see the significant difference in the levels of self esteem between boys and girls. The formula used for this test could be to get the estimated d is sample mean difference divided by sample standard deviation. In using this test the researchers must always make sure of the validity of the test they use. Purpose of using Cohen’s d Cohen’s d is to measure effect size and to evaluate the size of the treatment effect that is measured by t2. Cohen’s d is calculated when the boys and girls are tested again. The interpretation of .90 means that 90 percent of the participants self esteem is effected by depressive symptoms. Testing Before and After...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Hypothesis

... a specific research problem, question, AND hypothesis. (there should be three separate responses to the section). Students Response: Problem: Riverdale High School is currently overcrowded in terms of high numbers of student enrollment. There is an urgent need for a reduction in the number of students in order to reduce overcrowding. The school is also facing the problem of low pay for their teacher which has negatively affected their working morale. However, low pay for teachers has become the main problem facing the institution and this can only be addressed by devising a systematic plan. Question: What is the influence of financial security on the morale of teachers? Hypothesis: Financial security has the positive effect of improving...
2 Pages(500 words)Coursework

Hypothesis

... Hypothesis By The research question for this study is the reason behind the failure of America and its allies to launch war against Iran because of its continued engagement in production of nuclear weapons. This is despite it having signed the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. In this kind of a situation, there are several factors which could be the cause of America not to launch a war against Iran. As we all know, Americas is always safeguarding its personal interest even when engaging in humanitarian course of action. Thinking on this line, America may fail to attack Iran because the country would be assisted by other countries in the gulf region creating more enemies for America. Iranian, are also pro-American, attacking the nuclear...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Standardized tests

... Standardized Tests The practice of standardized testing refers to a test administered in a consistent manner. This paves way for carrying out tests that revolve around questions, scoring procedures as well as interpretations, which are laid out consistently. Further research on the issue, continues to prove, just how much the test results tend to show bias in favor of one party, as opposed to the other party. It is important to note that there exists a flaw. This comes about whereby, there standardized tests show some truth, or rather, give results that are relevant to the situation on the ground. Though this could in some separate cases show the existence of prior plans to submit considerably similar results with the situation in place...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Hypothesis

... Unit: Hypothesis Society practices that encourage equality lead to better productivity from social groups typically considered minorities. Independent variable Social group – race or gender to which one belongs. For example man or woman, Hispanic, African American, Asian Indian American, native American. Dependent variable Productivity – average annual income in US dollars. Social-conflict theory – segregation of people, whether it is along racial or gender lines, limits their personal development. The United States is an example of a country where discrimination was rife in the early part of the 20th century. More awareness and changes in legislation have led to an increase in women and minority groups in the labor market... Unit:...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Hypothesis

...Physics assignment Hypothesis is a limited ment concerning the cause and effects of a particular situation which can be tested experimentally and by observations. It can also be done through the statistical analysis of data from various probabilities. Hypothesis can also be termed as a research question. The outcome of the hypothesis is usually unknown and the research is aimed answering these questions. Write an equation for the following scenario: You drive your car for T hours at a speed of V km per hour. Find the total distance, D, travelled. In linear motion, speed is usually given as distance travelled per the time taken. Therefore, Time= T hours, Speed =V km per hour To find the distance travelled in km, we make D the subject...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Confidence Interval of Proportions

...F Confidence Interval of Proportions al Affiliation Have you completed the weekly reading assignment? Yes I have. 2)For the first problem, what is the Margin, and what are the lower and upper confidence limits? The margin of error is 0.0568 and the confidence interval is between .2933 and .4067 or simply (29.33% to 40.67%). 3) For the second problem, what is the Margin, and what are the lower and upper confidence limits? The margin of error is 0.03624 and the confidence interval is between .286 and .3585 or simply (28.6% to 35.85%). 4) For the third problem, what is the required sample size? The required sample size is 545. 5) Does the confidence interval estimate vary from sample to sample? Yes it does. A large sample size improves...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

To What Extent Does the Concept of Emotional Intelligence Point Towards a New Means of Controlling Workers

Weber believed that ‘the specialized experts organized into smoothly functioning units by the bureaucratic managers would provide these elite managers with a decision-making ability foreign to the parliaments and the courts’ (Glassman et al., 1984, 5). However, in order for the role of managers within bureaucratic environments to be understood, it is necessary to proceed to a thorough examination to the structure and the characteristics of such an environment under normal social and political conditions.

Moreover, the acceptance of Weber’s views on bureaucracy has led to the assumption that bureaucracy (Fry, 1989, 41) ‘is not necessarily rational, it may not be efficient, that other forms of orga...
11 Pages(2750 words)Assignment

Delayed Auditory Feedback as a Means of Managing a Speech Dysfluency

Choral speech is a phenomenon in stuttering where two speakers produce the same material simultaneously. During the choral speech, all stuttering behaviors are absent. This may be due to a centrally based neural mechanism that pairs speech perception and production as interchangeable forms of action recognition and execution (Saltuklaroglu & Kalinowski, 2003).

Antistammering devices use similar electronically derived permutations of choral speech, which allows the user to hear their own voice with a slight time delay and/or a pitch shift, creating the illusion of another individual speaking at the same time (MPTAC, 2006).

Initial therapy is without the use of DAF, where the stutterer is trained to use a s...
7 Pages(1750 words)Term Paper

Does Terrorism Work as a Means of Changing World Policies

That is the dilemma associated with terrorism--- the double-edged weapon. The old saying that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter, is still in vogue. A man belonging to Al-Qaeda can be a so-called freedom fighter for Bin-Laden but for President George Bush Government, he is simply a terrorist, who spills the blood of the innocents.

The basic and the debatable question here is whether terrorism really works in the present scenario in changing the Governments and their opinions? There appears to be a number of instances across the globe wherein it has been felt that terrorists, except killing innocents and making media headings and stories, have generally failed in their deadly mission in toppling the dem...
7 Pages(1750 words)Report

The Efficient Market Hypothesis

...APPLIED PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT APPLICATION OF THE EFFICIENT MARKET HYPOTHESIS This paper attempts to verify the validity of the ment: “Economic theory suggests that markets are efficient and that security prices are determined on the basis of fundamental value.” The National Australia Bank (NAB) has been chosen for the purpose of the study. Data from January 2003 to October 10, 2008 are used for the derivation of daily returns of the NAB stock, with an analysis of the nature and causes of the price changes in terms of information received or accessed by investors. The choice of these inclusive dates was made because the study has to have a distinct, conventional starting point in time, in this case January 1, 2003, and, further, the use...
24 Pages(6000 words)Research Paper

English Language Teaching Language and Assessment Harmful Effects of Tests: A Personal Experience

..., since the teacher was not using a tape-recorder, his voice was not consistent and this distracted me a good deal especially during testing stress and intonation. All these factors led me to score a low mark in the test. Reading is one of the four skills of a language. It is a complex skill as it involves decoding symbols for the purpose of deriving meaning. Compared to listening and speaking , little importance it has as a person can do his day-to-day activities with no recourse to reading. However, reading becomes more important than other skills as a person gets more educated . At this particular time, he might spend much time in reading than listening and speaking. Having discussed speaking and listening tests and their harmful...
12 Pages(3000 words)Term Paper

What It Means to Be British

With such a correlation, sports have always integrated with and thereby influenced many countries’ history and importantly the social belief of their people. Many British sports, as well as British sportspersons, have indulged in certain actions on the field as well as off the field, which have reinforced as well as challenged many perceptions of the people. Thus, this paper will analyze how sports in the United Kingdom have both reinforced as well as challenged dominant social beliefs about what it means to be British.
Social practices of the people in a particular nation including the social practice of sports contribute actively to the formation of that nation’s identity, as the people construct meanings influe...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment

Means of Curbing the Tobacco Catastrophe

Research has proven that approximately 50,000 non-smokers, in this case, passive smokers, die annually from being exposed to smokers. This, therefore, calls for the alarm to invent means of cutting down the tobacco menace and saving these many lives which go to waste. This study text will expound more on the effects of tobacco and suggest means of curbing the tobacco catastrophe, and what can be done to save the addicted tobacco users.
“Tobacco Health Hazards” (n.p.) states that today, tobacco has risen to be amongst the most addictive and harmful drugs known to man today, with its trend of enslaving one of every three smokers to its addiction; nicotine addiction. It is so intense that it is ranked in the same le...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

Use of the Media to Spread Fear as a Means for Controlling the Public in V for Vendetta

... Use of the Media to Spread Fear as a Means for Controlling the Public Introduction For the longest period, numerous interest groups around the world have used fear, especially in media discourse. The technique of fear control operates by generating uncertainty and spreading it among the members of the public with the aim of creating for themselves a suitable environment for the easy achievement of their goals. While fear naturally manifest in people, some interest groups create fear among the people to intimidate them into not questioning their actions, according to Hanna (37). Such groups are in most cases involved in politics and use the media to spread fear among the people, as was seen in the movie V for Vendetta, which this paper...
6 Pages(1500 words)Movie Review

Critical Commentary and Use of Various Tests

... practice inherent in the test makes it applicable in evaluating and assessing dyslexic students. According to Mahant et al., (2003), the test has standard score that has a mean of one hundred with a standard deviation of fifteen percent. The abilities of the student are measure in percentiles. Arbitrary assigning of the grade level in the test to allow for interpretation as a rough reference level affects not only the reliability but also the efficiency of the systems. However, the impact is minimal considering that the standard scales are used for all the participations and therefore the error caused by the arbitrary assigned value will be inherent across all the tests carried out. DeMonte et al. (2009) notes that this test gives a split...
12 Pages(3000 words)Term Paper

Atopic Dermatitis: Treatment by Means of Plants

... Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis This section will explore the practice of treatment of the above mentioned skin ailment and will test the scientific claims related to it. As the mentioned skin ailment is also referred to as eczema, which means from Greek ‘to boil something over’, the principle of treatment with the use of herbs is boiling the damaged areas with the medicine prepared from the plants. (Dallmeier, 2013). There are many plants which provide useful materials for medicines making, and this chapter will consider the most effective ones. Aloe vera is a universal and powerful enough first-aid means used for different purposes, including various skin ailments. (Hobbs, Gardner, 2013). This is a generally recognized plant...
12 Pages(3000 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Hypothesis Tests for Means and Proportions for FREE!

Contact Us