Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Occupational Stress - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Before going on to compare and contrast the "Demand-Control-Support" and "Effort-Reward-Imbalance" models of occupational stress, let us briefly define occupational stress and understand its sources and consequences. Despite lack of consensus on the exact definition of occupational stress, and the fact that 'occupational stress', 'job stress' and 'work stress' is often used interchangeably, it is generally believed that occupational stress is "associated with aversive or unpleasant emotional states that people experience as a consequence of their work…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.1% of users find it useful
Occupational Stress
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Occupational Stress"

Download file to see previous pages In economically advanced societies, work and occupation take on a central position in adult life. Occupation defines the most important criterion for social stratification in advanced societies. Occupational settings produce the most pervasive continuous demands during one's lifetime, and they absorb the largest amount of time in adult life (Albrecht et al 2003). Contemporary definitions of stress favour a transactional perspective; this emphasises that stress is located neither in the person, nor in the environment, but in the relationship between the two (Cooper et al, quoted in Clarke & Cooper 2004:5)
Selye(1981, quoted in Grant et al 1995) said that work is an essential need for everyone. The question is not whether we should or should no work, but what kind of work suits us best. Consequently, external and internal sources of stress and their subsequent strain has a cause and effect relationship, and are experienced and suffered by employees and workers in their societies. "Occupational stress is a growing problem that results in substantial stress to individual employees and work organizations around the globe. The changing nature of work has placed unprecedented demands on employees and fuelled concerns about the effect this change is having on the well being and the health of their employees and their work organizations" (Anderson et al 2001:93). As social inequalities in health continue to be a key public health problem, scientific theories that explain these inequalities are needed (Siegrist and Marmot 2003). Thus, there are many approaches to occupational stress. They involve types of causal and affected variables, and also different labels are used (Cooper 1998). The two most significant models of occupational stress put forth are the (i) Demand-Control-Support Model by Robert A. Karasek, and further developed by T. Theorell as well as by Johnson and Hall and the (ii) Effort Reward Imbalance model introduced by Johannes Siegrist.
Comparison and Contrast:
The Demand-Control-Support (DCS) Model : Salient Features
The demand-control-support model was developed by Karasek and his colleagues during the 1980s. According to this model, psychological demands (both qualitative and quantitative) have more averse consequences if they occur jointly with lack of possibility to influence decisions regarding the job, ie, low decision latitude. Low decision latitude has two components- (i) authority over decisions (the immediate possibility that the individual has to influence decisions regarding what to do and how to do it at work and (ii) intellectual discretion, which is the opportunity that the organization gives the individual to use and develop skills at work so that s/he can develop the possibility of control in the work situation (Moon and Sauter 1996). According to Karasek, who introduced this model, psychological distress is influenced by high demand/low control combinations. Conversely, an increase in control increases job satisfaction. According to ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Occupational Stress Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words”, n.d.)
Occupational Stress Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words. Retrieved from
(Occupational Stress Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words)
Occupational Stress Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words.
“Occupational Stress Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Occupational Stress

How Occupational Stress Affects Menthal Health

... and resources are depleted and an individual becomes exhausted. (p. 1970) These stages along with the previously cited variables underscore how the work environment can be a major stressor and could have an adverse impact on a worker’s mental processes, resistance and coping capabilities. Occupational Stress If one has to calculate the amount of time that Americans spend in the workplace, there is an average of 8 to 9 hours devoted to work related activities every day. This is more than 90 percent of the time that working individuals are awake. So what transpires within this period and environment composed a significant portion of stressors that greatly impacts their thinking processes and their bodily functions. This is the reason why...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Approaches to reduce occupational stress

...-shifts-in-2011-as-duke-targets-costs.html>. Dewe, Philip J. and Cary L. Cooper. Theories of Psychological Stress at Work. Research Report. London: Springer, 2012. Print. Fefer, Mark D. Attention Wal-Mart workers: Please do not report injuries. Vers. Web. 9 October 2006. 14 December 2013 . Hardy, Sally, Jerome Carson and Ben Thomas. Occupational Stress: Personal and Professional Approaches. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes, 1998. Print. Marshall, John. The high Price of Low Cost. Vers. Web. 2011. 14 December 2013 ....
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Occupational stress in Nursing

... are crucial for the thorough understanding of the employee's health and promoting their well-being. Occupational stress has gained the focus of nurse researchers over the last 20 years. The induction of stress during the practice of nursing has been scientifically studied with the aid of a great number of methodologies based on different philosophical perspectives (Benner & Wrubel 1989; Shaw 1999). It is important to note that nursing is one of the crucial subjects of the occupational stress studies. A large number of studies have been conducted to understand and bring to knowledge the reasons resulting in the causation of stress and the factors that can help lower the possibility of presence of these stress inducers. The present paper...
16 Pages(4000 words)Essay

Nursing Occupational Stress

...status and parenting affect the level of occupational stress on nurses based on a PMI scale: In recent years, humans are experiencing increased pressure not only in their everyday life but also at their work place due to the multifarious nature of their roles in the current society. The complexity and multiplicity of people's role and the ensuing stress that they are subjected to, have evoked the interest of researchers, and a considerable body of studies have accumulated on 'stress'. In the process of trying to explain the exact meaning of the word stress, scientists have offered a variety of differing definitions. Willner (1993) finds that "giving one...
30 Pages(7500 words)Research Paper

Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction which her colleague could earn what she failed to achieve. Being energetic, responsible and abstaining from absent mindedness are some factors that can really tend a worker to be more triumphant in the job. This paper analyses the occupational stresses, work values and job satisfaction. It also analyses ‘male’ and ‘female model’ differences which was a concern for Stewart thinking the differences between these models. Case overview Isabel Stewart, a highly experienced corporate tax lawyer at Austin and March Law firm in Philadelphia, is concerned about a junior male lawyer who is able to secure some extents of better works and to take over ‘big deal’ cases. It is not the compensation paid that she...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Occupational Stress suffered by Anesthesiologists

... is called occupational stress. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services (1999), occupational stress refers to the unsafe physical and emotional responses that surface when the abilities, resources or needs of a worker do not match the latter’s abilities. In other words, this is felt when the demands on a worker become too much for such worker’s ability to fulfill those demands (Lazarus, 1991). In a survey conducted by the US Department of Health and Human Services (1999), 40% of the American workers see their jobs as enormously stressful which made the healthcare expenditures of US increased to as much as 50% (Sauter & Hurrell, 1999). According to the study of Dickson (1996), the main sources of occupational stress...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Occupational Stress in Organizations

.... The article in focus studies the prevalence of occupational stress among employees and the effects that such have on their productivity. To achieve these, the researchers study five public corporations where they analyze stress prevalence among employees and its management. Statistical analysis Data gathering technique is an essential skill in any study. In the article, this is achieved through the use of questionnaires, interviews as well as observation. The subjects are easily defined; this is a factor that makes studying them a little easier. With the result tabulated, it becomes easy to calculate such important aspects of the findings as mean, the calculated median, and mode. The researchers employ the use of the statistical package...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

College and Occupational Stress

...and when there is little control. (True/False) 6. Occupational stress is the result of many factors. (True/False) 7. Jobs that allow for little decision-making while placing a high psychological demand on employees is very stressful (True/False). 8. Occupational stress is caused by problems limited only to the workplace. (True/False) Activity 10.2: Self-Assessment Directions: Rank-order the factors that would be most important to you in a job. _10_Variety of tasks _5_Minimum of pressure _6_Supportive co-workers _11_Excellent supervision _9_Subsidies for further education_3_Promotional opportunities _2_Good salary and benefits _12_Lots of...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Workplace Stress & Its Effect on Business Productivity

... with significantly higher rates of self-reported stress, depression or anxiety. These consist of the following professions: teaching professionals, protective service occupations, financial institution, office manager, public service and associated professionals, health associate professionals and in particular nurses, administrative occupations, government and related organisations; and functional managers This might help to explain why the public sector’s levels of absence, which includes The Rent Service (TRS), is higher than that of the private sector (Occupational Stress Statistics – Information Sheet 1/03/EMSU;HSE, 2003) Mean working time lost Mean days lost per...
86 Pages(21500 words)Research Paper

Emergency Service Personnel and the Impact of Stress and Cardiac Related Problems on Their Jobs

Due to the nature of their jobs, personnel working in these departments are prone to many occupational hazards, the most important of which is stress. This could be due to their own living environment, their protective gear, their officers and leaders, current management styles, co-workers, and the stress of leaving their families and loved ones alone during natural and man-made disasters. Many of them are required to withstand horrendous physical and psychological assaults as they perform their duty. They have to work in the midst of civil unrest, urban terrorism, structural collapse, earthquakes, and hurricanes. They need to be action-oriented and need to be in control. Those people who choose a career in this path, with all its...
10 Pages(2500 words)Term Paper

Analysis of Physiological Stress Response Case

Hien Ng's personal history was also significant. He was a chronic smoker and had smoked 20 cigarettes per day for many years. On admission, a general examination of the patient revealed that he was anxious and agitated, but orientated to time and place. His skin was pale and cool to touch. Heart rate was 116 beats per minute and irregular, blood pressure was 140/95mmHg, the temperature was 37.8 C (cool peripheries), respiratory rate was 28 per minute, abdominal pain score was 6/10 and approximate weight was 68kg and height 163cm.

From the above history, it is evident that Mr. Ng was admitted to the hospital with acute gastroenteritis with dehydration and exacerbation of chronic gastric ulcers. He was subjected to both a...
15 Pages(3750 words)Case Study

Observation Paper on Stress at a Local High School Football Game

...Observation Paper on STRESS at a Local High School Football Game Football is a high quality game which necessitates a lot of potentiality and management of various kinds of stress associated with the game. Stress can be defined as the organism’s total response to a particular environmental demand or pressure. Physical, and psychological( emotional and mental) pressures play vital roles in a high school football game as the players, the parents, other spectators, officials, coaches, and referees have to undergo a great amount of stress as the game is in progress. This large amount of stress can affect the normal behavior pattern of all the people involved in the game and people tend to be aggressive and pressure ridden, depending upon...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

Occupational Health and Safety Session Long Programs

Hazards from slips and trips include spillage of wet and dry substances, trailing cables, rubbish such as plastic bags, rugs or mats, poor lighting, slippery surfaces, change of floor surface from wet to dry, changes in levels, slopes, smoke, steam, and/or unsuitable footwear. HSE has outlined the following five-step approach to managing risks from slips and trips. Identify slip and trip hazards, such as uneven floors and trailing cables in the workplace. Make a decision on possible people at risk, and consider whether precautionary measures in place are adequate. Record the findings and review the assessment periodically. Also, HSE has recommended establishing good working practices, such as training workers in the correct use of...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Persistent avoidance and emotional numbing; persistent symptoms of increased arousal not present prior to the event; duration of symptoms last for more than one month; significant impairment (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
The criteria to determine if a person has PTSD includes (APA, 2000) exposure to a traumatic event. For the event to be considered traumatic, and therefore capable of causing PTSD, it must involve a severe negative emotional response and a depletion of integrity or an event that involves the threat of injury or death; persistent re-experiencing of the event, such as experiencing flashbacks of the event, and the ability to continually re-experience the event or display a negative psychological resp...
24 Pages(6000 words)Term Paper

Contribution of Organisational Behaviour to the Individualisation of the Employer Relationship Has Led to an Increase in Workplace Stress

...Topic: The contribution made by organisational behaviour to the individualisation of the employer/employee relationship, especially through the growing use of Process Theories by employers, has led to an increase in workplace stress. This assignment looks at the process theories and work-related stress and how these two effect an employee’s health, with the help of national statistics, It begins with talking about the current economic climate and its contribution to increase in work-related stress issues and diseases. Finally this paper will conclude the essay by discussing a few key factors generating stress and its implications on human health. First of all, one needs to define what is a process theory? It is a scientific research...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Occupational Health Challenges in the United Kingdom

The study assessed the impacts of these aforementioned variables in the economic context of the United Kingdom in the recent phenomenon.
Methods: A qualitative, literature review process has been applied in this study. Reports published by Health and Safety Executive (HSE) based on the recent changes observed in the demographics, industrial structures, and labor market scenario of the UK have been regarded as valuable and reliable secondary sources in this study.

Results: The results obtained in this study suggest that the strategies applied by UK governmental bodies and industrial players have been quite effective in reducing the OH risks among the workforce over the recent past. However, more in-depth studies are...
17 Pages(4250 words)Research Paper

Management of Occupational Stress

...significantly improved and the cases of illness, absenteeism, and turnover reduce by 40% within one year of the proposal implementation. Management of Occupational Stress Problem Statement Occupational stress is one of the most serious management problems facing companies in the United States today. Reports indicate that occupational stress has been on the increase with employees complaining that they are stressed at their jobs. However, analyses show that occupational stress is caused mainly by poor management. Most companies today are more interested in making huge profits at the...
11 Pages(2750 words)Case Study

Occupational Marine Safety and Health Management in the USA

The US Marine Corps ORM manual highlights the processes and steps that must be adhered to, for the maintenance of quality service and safety. The nature of militants’ operations, particularly combat operations, is quite complex, demanding and involves a lot of risks. In order to operate effectively, the ORM manual has integrated two important aspects: safety and risk management, in decision making. This helps the leaders and commanders to strategically plan and execute their daily missions. The ORM enables US Marine Corps to discharge their duty, with minimal losses and in a timely manner. Therefore, ORM has proven to be an invaluable tool for the U.S Marine Corps operations.
The Oxford Learners Dictionary defines risk...
33 Pages(8250 words)Research Proposal

Occupational Stress in the United Kingdom

...are put in place to help prevent occupational stress among workers in various occupational institutions (Byrne, 2011).Well managed, organized and designed work is significant for the people but when insufficient attention to work organization, management and job design has taken place, it can lead to work related stress. Work related stress happens as a result of the failure of the employees to cope with the demand of their employers. According to Coggon (2013) development of the occupational health strategy in the United Kingdom is aimed at improving occupational health and safety in the region by coming up with...
14 Pages(3500 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Occupational Stress for FREE!

Contact Us