StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Polymerase Chain Reaction - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
This essay will examine the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique by taking a closer look at its emergence as the preferred technique for multiplying and amplifying DNA. The advantages of PCR will be highlighted by contrasting the technique with cloning, the components required and the stages of the process.
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.4% of users find it useful
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Polymerase Chain Reaction"

Introduction This essay will examine the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique by taking a closer look at its emergence as the preferred technique for multiplying and amplifying DNA. The advantages of PCR will be highlighted by contrasting the technique with cloning, the components required and the stages of the process.
The Polymerase chain reaction was first introduced Kary Mullis in the 1980's (Bartlett et al 2003). Prior to its use in molecular biology, the amplification of DNA could only be carried out by cloning. PCR allows a "direct amplification without the use of cloning" (Bastianutto et al 2006). Its name was coined from one of its key processes i.e. DNA polymerase. A DNA template is produced and the chain reaction that follows is the concluding part of the process.
Requirements for Polymerase Chain Reaction
A major requirement of recombinant DNA techniques is the "availability of large quantities of specific DNA segment" (Bastianutto et al 2006). Cloning which was the preferred method involves transformation of a plasmid vector into bacteria that is then cultured. The cloning process is not as efficient as PCR in terms of amplification of DNA. In addition PCR can allow the generation of millions of copies of DNA from a single or few pieces.
PCR mostly uses DNA as a target instead of RNA. This target can be a gene or a non-coding sequence. A successful PCR technique requires the following components and reagents:
i. DNA Template containing the target to be amplified.
ii. a pair of complementary primers at 5' prime and 3' ends.
iii. an enzyme: Taq polymerase.
iv. Deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) building blocks of the new strands.
v. A buffer to provide a DNA polymerase suitable balanced chemical environment and
vi. Divalent cations e.g. manganese ions
Stages in Polymerase Chain Reaction
PCR occurs in stages, the Initialization, Denaturation, Annealing, Extension/elongation, Final elongation. The Initialization step involves heating to 94-96C. After the heating stage, Denaturation produces a single DNA strand. This is caused by breaking the hydrogen bonds between DNA strands, thus causing the melting of the DNA template and primers. Temperature is lowered during the annealing step. Here primers are bound to the single stranded DNA template by the polymerase. At the Extension/elongation the DNA polymerase produces a new DNA strand by adding dNTPs. The last PCR cycle is the Final elongation, the step is done to ensure that all single stranded DNA are fully extended. To check whether the PCR generated the anticipated DNA fragment a gel electrophoresis is carried out.
Conclusion
Polymerase chain reaction helps researchers produce millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence in short time. This efficient process eliminates the need to use bacteria for DNA amplification. Scientists employ PCR in Southern blotting, recombinant DNA technology etc. In microbiology, it is used in diagnosing microbial infections. Law enforcement units also use PCR efficiently in forensics laboratories as only minuscule amounts of original DNA is required. Real-Time PCR can instantly predict DNA present in a sample but also while still in process and rapidly, since it eliminates electrophoresis or other procedure after the DNA amplification reaction.
References
Bartlett & Stirling (2003). A Short History of the Polymerase Chain Reaction. In: Methods Mol Biol. 226:3-6
Bastianutto, C., Ditta, S. (2006). DNA Fingerprinting/Polymerase Chain Reaction Protocol. Laboratory notes, Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology, Toronto.
Mackay, I.M. (2007). Real Time PCR in Microbiology: from Diagnosis to Characterization. Queensland: Caister Academic Press. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Polymerase Chain Reaction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1505510-polymerase-chain-reaction
(Polymerase Chain Reaction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1505510-polymerase-chain-reaction.
“Polymerase Chain Reaction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1505510-polymerase-chain-reaction.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Polymerase Chain Reaction

Reaction

...?Reaction Paper on David Cole Interviews Dr. Franciszek Piper David Cole Interviews about Auschwitz and its gas chambers are quite informative. According to my perception, the gas chambers have holes that are indicative of the fact that these holes were employed for discharging the gas Zyklon B from outside. Ceilings of the gas chambers were used for discharging the gas inside the chambers. After World War II, changes were made, as the gas chambers are not in its original form. They are reconstructed. They are not fully representing the extremity of their homicide capability, The doors at the time of killing were made airtight while after World War II, there were new doors placed, which were not airtight. In my opinion, the number...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)

... as restriction endonuclease. An enzyme which is restricted is made of protein which is produced by bacteria which cleaves DNA at a very specific site and the bacteria also ends up in restricting the enzymes for defending against the viruses such as phage. Over all 200 sequences are identified through these enzymes. REFERENCE MULLIS, K. B., FERRE?, F., & GIBBS, R. (1994). The Polymerase chain reaction. Boston, Birkha?user. MCPHERSON, M. J., & MOLLER, S. G. (2000). PCR. Oxford, BIOS. http://site.ebrary.com/id/5000324. NEWTON, C. R., & GRAHAM, A. (1997). PCR. Oxford, OX, UK, BIOS Scientific Publishers. EELES, R. A., & STAMPS, A. C. (1993). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR): the technique and its application. Austin, R.G. Landes Co....
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Polymerase Chain Reation

...PCR Practical. Approximate word count: 460 Answers to questions related to figure DNA sequencing experiment). Q2. (a) Determine the nucleotide determined i.e., 5' and 3'. Answer: Control patient 5' - TTT AcT TTc cAA ATA cgg gcT ccA gcg - 3' Affected patient 5' - TTT AcT TTc cAA ATA cgg ggT ccA gcg - 3' (b) What is the affected sequence. Answer: The mutation is a 'Point Mutation: Transversion' wherein a pyrimidine was replaced with a purine (Cytosine with Guanine) in the affected patient gene: 5' - TTT AcT TTc cAA ATA cgg ggT ccA gcg - 3' (c) Sequences of the template strand. Answer: Control patient 5' - cgc tgg agc ccg tat ttg gaa agt aaa - 3' Affected patient 5' - cgc tgg acc ccg tat ttg gaa agt aaa - 3' (d... Practical....
3 Pages(750 words)Lab Report

Polymerase chain reaction practical, Genetics

...and then amplification with PCR make it possible to do different analysis on it. Here the aim of this experiment was to understand fundamental principle and use of polymerase chain reaction and based on that to understand how PCR is used in DNA fingerprinting based crime investigation and criminal identification 2. Methods: 2.1 Buccal DNA extraction: Ten ml, 0.9% saline solution was rubbed vigorously against the cheeks for 10 seconds. The sample (extract from the bucaal cavity) was then transferred into 15 ml centrifuge tube and centrifuged at 2000 g for 10 minutes for the pellet. Thereafter, 500 l of chelex beads were added into the pellet and resuspended with the chelex by...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

The Polymerase Chain Reaction:

...Deadline: To handed in 2nd of March The Polymerase Chain Reaction: Its use in genetic testing. Results. Attach a photograph or copy of the class data below as Fig. 3. The gel must be clearly labelled. Fig. 3. Genotypes of individuals in the class for the TPA-25 gene, Alu insertion polymorphism. Discussion/Questions: 1). If the reaction has worked, what is your genotype for the polymorphism? My gel did not show any reaction. If your DNA has migrated to the band designated at 100 bp position, then your genotype is homozygous for the absence of TPA-25 gene Alu insertion polymorphism (-/- or short/short). However if it migrates to the 400 bp band position you are considered homozygous for the presence of TPA-25 gene Alu insertion...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Viral Genome Detection Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

... to their high specificity and sensitivity. One tool that has revolutionized the field of clinical diagnostics is polymerase chain reaction (PCR), an enzymatic procedure which amplifies a specific fragment of DNA or RNA (Lion et al., 2006). Since PCR makes use of nucleic acids to detect the presence of organisms, it is extremely useful in the identification of notoriously difficult-to-detect pathogens like viruses. It has been established that human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a necessary precursor for the onset of cervical cancer (Stanley 2010). In fact, approximately 90% of cervical cancer cases can be accounted for by HPV types 16 and 18. Since HPV infection is very common with a lifetime risk of infection of 50-80%, its accurate...
4 Pages(1000 words)Lab Report

Chain reaction by tere Martinez

...The Role of Mentorship in Tere Martínez’s Chain Reaction Mentorship is an important aspect of the relationship between two people where one teaches and influences the other. This relationship is often seen between teachers and students, where the student looks to the teacher for advice and guidance on many different aspects. This type of relationship can be transforming particularly for the students, as they respect the opinions, morals and beliefs of their mentor. In Tere Martínez’s Chain Reaction the mentorship relationship is exhibited through various student-teacher relationships, having a significant impact on the lives of the students. The play itself focuses on Antionia Pantoja, a community leader from Puerto Rica and her life’s...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Extraction of plasmid DNA and set up of polymerase chain Reaction (PCR)

... absorb at 280 nm, while peptide bonds absorb at 230 nm. Other biomolecules with aromatic compounds, such as carbohydrates, sulphydryls, phenolics and other aromatic compounds can also absorb at 280 nm. Thus, A260/A280 is a measure of the purity of a DNA sample, such that 1.9 is pure DNA, while values between 1.65 and 1.85 indicate for adequately purified DNA solutions. On the other hand, A260/A230 should be more than 2.0 (King Saud University, n. d.). Based from this, although the solution is free from aromatic-rich proteins, it seems to be containing other impurities, more probably non-aromatic peptides, since A260/A230 was less than 2.0. Polymerase Chain Reaction In the experiment, the ingredients for PCR, plasmid DNA, primer mix...
5 Pages(1250 words)Coursework

Reaction

...Movie Reaction Movie Reaction: Training The training of employees in an organization is an integral part of development and improvement. In fact, the challenge of improvement and service delivery is based on increased training. The training of the employees is a vital aspect in the management of human resource. Therefore, it is vital for the Human resource team to understand and prepare schedules for training. In the video, several issues are addressed that affect human resource training and improvement (Lambert, 2014). These issues include language training especially when focusing on international market. The training video covers array of issues including effective communication. Effective communication is an important factor...
2 Pages(500 words)Movie Review

Phenyl Thiocarbanate (PTC) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based genetic analysis of the PTC genotype using human-specific DNA primers

..., A280, 260/280, 260/230) were retained for reference. The DNA concentrations of taste perception phenotype (ST/MT/NT) were recorded in excel spread sheet. Polymerase Chain Reaction Set up The micro-eppendorf tube was used to assemble the PCR reaction. The master mix had all the PCR reaction components permitting detection of PTC gene. However, it did not contain the template DNA.43.5l Master mix (already prepared) and 6.5l Template DNA prep. (Buccal cell DNA) (Total volume = 50l) was put in one tube and mixed so that the solution contents settled at the bottom of the tube. The procedure was mixing the solutions to dissolve (flicking with a finger) and then the tube was pulse spun to gather the liquid contents to the bottom...
9 Pages(2250 words)Research Paper

Supply Chain Management Techniques at Wal-Mart Stores

...Supply Chain Management Techniques at Wal-Mart Stores Faculty This paper is on the Supply Chain management techniques at Wal-Mart stores. Wal-Mart is largest retailer in the world and its success is due to focused approach at each level of organization’s functions. It has adopted appropriate strategies and new technologies to meet its organizational objectives and improved its relationship with its customers, suppliers and employees. Table of Contents Abstract I. Introduction II. Wal-Mart Stores III. Supply Chain Management IV. Supply Chain Management in Wal-Mart Stores V. Conclusion VI. Reference I. Introduction Wal-Mart is the largest retailer in the world with consistent ranking in fortune 500 lists on top 5 from last many...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

E-logistics and Supply Chain Management: Tesco

...1. Supply Chain management (SCM) involves integrating all the functions to maximize benefits and reduce costs. SCM includes the logistics flows, thecustomer order management, the production processes, and the information flows necessary to monitor all the activities at the supply chain nodes (Swensson, 2003). Tesco.com has adopted the expansive strategy by including non-food items in its list and ensures proper coordination between all its processes in the supply chain. Tesco uses the latest technology which enables to shop any time from anywhere through the use of handheld computers and WAP-based wireless phones, internet, pocket PCs or digital TV. They have also opened up Internet cafes in stores to facilitate the customers with poor...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

How Can CRM Strategies Improve Efficiency and Effectiveness in Supply Chain Networks to Enhance Competitive Advantage

... CRM and Supply Chains How can CRM strategies improve efficiency and effectiveness in supply chain networks to enhance competitive advantage? Provide real life example to support your case With globalisation and the growth of a shared market across the world, it is very important for all brands to have individual recognition and be accepted as a part of the local scene as much a small business would be (Harker and Esan, 2006). While this is often the target of marketing executives, it is often found that customers may have different relationships with brands and the strongest customer relationships survive even when if product quality goes down or even if the competition offers a better deal (Tenser, 2006). In essence, the relationship...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

American Airlines: Supply Chain Nightmare

For this reason, it is necessary that all business sectors are carefully reviewed – as often as possible – for the appropriateness of their structure and their daily needs; managers may fail to evaluate with accuracy their firm’s needs, a fact that can cause the failure of plans applied on the relevant organization (Hardless, 2005). On the other hand, the needs of various organizational departments are different; the methods used for the improvement of a firm’s activities should be flexible taking into consideration the characteristics of the specific organizational sector, its strengths/ weaknesses but also its role in the development of the firm’s activities. Boeing is a firm with a long presence in...
15 Pages(3750 words)Case Study

The Sustainable Commodity Chain and Responsible Tourism Businesses

...International Tourism Management: The Sustainable Commodity Chain and ‘Responsible’ Tourism Businesses By Candi s FACULTY OF BUSINESSADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT Contents Introduction 1 The Sustainable Commodity Chain 4 A Responsible Tourism Business 7 Making a Sustainable Commodity Chain for Tourism Responsible 10 Conclusion 12 Bibliography/ References 15 List of Tables Table 1: Types of Actors in General Production Chains and in Tourism Chains 5 (This page intentionally left blank) Introduction The notion of a commodity chain is a useful and pervasive metaphor for thinking about links between production, distribution and consumption of goods...
9 Pages(2250 words)Literature review

Apple Brand Value Chain

...Table of Contents Page Apple Brand Value Chain 2 Marketing Program Investment 2 mindset 3 Market Performance4 Shareholder Value 5 Program Multiplier 5 Consumer Multiplier 7 Market Multiplier 8 Brand Portfolio and Brand History 10 References 12 Apple Brand Value Chain Illustration 1. Apple Brand Value Chain Shown in the above illustration is Apple’s Brand Value Chain which specifically composed of value stages and filters. Marketing Program Investment There are three most important and distinct about marketing program investment of Apple. Apple primarily tries to go for cutting edge technology which is a strong marketing proposition that it tries to integrate in all of its product...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

Supply Chain Management: Conceptual Supply Network

...Supply Chain Management Introduction A basic collective definition of supply chain are thrice some time more accordingly, these are the firm’s dual equipped transitional informing, capital, assistance for providing goods, and commodity availability destination of consume. (Mentzer et al., 2001). In simpler words a supply chain is the cooperation among companies or organizations in order to improve the cumulative as well as individual performances. A supply chain is a basic element of the growth or manufacturing period. So far both could not work without it. Recent development in this era of new business strategies that must minimize risk in business by using friendly environment machinery , social acknowledgement as requirement...
8 Pages(2000 words)Term Paper

Logistics and Supply Chain Strategy

Sustainability increases the mode of rail and sea freight and intermodal transport. The demand characteristics in some cases influence the choice of transport mode and even the need for safety stocks. The appropriate logistic strategy is essential for any organization as the manufacturing lead time is affected by the product characteristics and design. Globalization is a factor that causes longer lead times as a result of longer distances (Chan and Lee, 2005, p.78). The basis for any logistic strategy is the product. The product pricing is affected by the choice of transport mode. The production flow is smoothened with good demand predictability. Demand predictability is improved with the help of information technology through gre...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

International Supply Chain Management in Canada

...Management International Supply Chain Management Introduction International logistics and supply chain management in general terms can be describedas the process of effectively strategizing and managing multiple activities all aimed towards carrying out sourcing and efficient transportation of goods from one location to another. With the current development within the industrial sectors, these concepts of goods and service transportation has gained high significance and thus has also attained considerable amount of growth (Hakkinen, 2005). These types of organizations mostly act as third parties between two business bodies and effectively carry out goods exchanging operation between them. In this discussion the focus will be towards...
8 Pages(2000 words)Term Paper

Supply Chain Management

...Supply Chain Integration Articles Cachon, G.2005. Managing supply chain demand variability with scheduled ordering policies. Journal of Management Science, 45, 843-856. Katunzi, T. M. 2011. Obstacles to Process Integration along the Supply Chain: Manufacturing Firms Perspective. International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (5), Ketchen Jr., G., & Hult, T.M. 2006. Bridging organization theory and supply chain management: The case of best value supply chains. Journal of Operations Management, 25(2) 573-580 Lee H. L. 2000. Creating Value through Supply Chain Integration. Supply Chain Management Role of Top Management. Journal of Business Logistics, 15 (1). Stevens, G. C. 2003. Integrating the supply chain. International Journal...
9 Pages(2250 words)Research Proposal
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Polymerase Chain Reaction for FREE!

Contact Us