Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

The Congo - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Before the independence, under the external aggression of Belgium, in 1958, Patrice Lumumba founded the National Congolese Movement (MNC). Just after the foundation, the party started demonstrations and protests for independence from the colonial government of Belgium…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.6% of users find it useful
The Congo
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "The Congo"

Download file to see previous pages The independence did not solve all the problems of Congo, and problems started arising in the province of Katanga, which was enriched with mines. The province was under the control of Moise Tshombe, who in July 1960 supported the Belgium mercenaries and the Belgium Mining company named Union Minere. After having this support, he declared Kantanga independence. Due to this treachery to the Congo government, Lumumba requested United Nations to look into the matter and resolve all the upcoming issues and probable Civil War.
The Lumumba's government requested UN military assistance "to protect the national territory of the Congo against the present external aggression which is a threat to international peace." There was no request to restore internal stability. However, Secretary-General Hammarskjold recommended to the Security Council the establishment of a peace-keeping force to assist the government of the Congo in maintaining law and order until, with technical assistance from the UN, the Congolese national security forces were able to meet these tasks. The Security Council authorized the Secretary-General to take the necessary steps for this purpose and called on Belgium to withdraw its troops from the territory. Thus began what, until the operation in Cambodia, was the largest UN peacekeeping operation (reaching a peak of 20,000 troops plus a large civilian corps) and one with a profound influence on internal developments in a member state.
The Secretary-General was fully aware of the sensitivity of the action that the UN was undertaking in the Congo, both in terms of the attitudes of the foreign countries having a strong interest in the course of events in the Congo, and of the resistance of the Congolese government to any seeming.
UN Peace Keeping Mission in Congo -Congo Crisis (MONUC)
The secretary-general thus faced a government clearly desperately searching for assistance, and the possibility that outside powers might fill the resulting vacuum if the UN did not. Acting under Article 99 of the charter for the first time in the organization's history, the secretary-general called for a Security Council meeting to discuss the issue. In doing so, Hammarskjold set in motion the UN involvement in the Congo. That involvement took the form of an operation that, until the 1990s, was the largest UN peacekeeping operation on record. It was also an involvement that prompted a crisis so deep and an experience so devastating for the United Nations that once the UN operation in the Congo was officially over the UN did its best not only to put the experience behind it but also to forget it altogether.
The willingness to use force in the Congo was a first for the United Nations and it came in the early days of UN experience with peacekeeping. Some of the logistical and communication problems associated with the operation, therefore, can be attributed to a general lack of experience and procedures. Command and control problems, for example, such as those associated with the final unexpected push into Jadotville that surprised UN headquarters, fall into this category. It remains possible, though, that the Jadotville example, like the murky background to Operation Morthor, is an example of a disconnect between decision making in the field and decision making at UN headquarters, either ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The Congo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
The Congo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words. Retrieved from
(The Congo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
The Congo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words.
“The Congo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


Congo Conflict

... mining areas, which could have starved off funding for numerous illegal groups. The country has historically been at conflict since independence from Belgium in 1960. The United Nations has been present in the country from that time although its activities were restarted after the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. The Congo conflict has created many security and economic complications in the great lakes region. The United Nations has played and continues to play a crucial role in peace building and development in the democratic republic of Congo, with the major aim of creating a stable government and ensuring basic human rights are maintained in the country. The conflict in the DRC is complex and has many actors with very many historical injustices...
20 Pages(5000 words)Research Paper

King leopold's destruction of the Congo followed the themes of dehumanization and greed

..., “There is no trade going on here. Little or nothing is being exchanged for the rubber and ivory. ” 1 The colonization of Africa had elicited mixed results. The prominent impact was the exploitation. Davidson points out that, “On one side, the colonial systems had continually drained Africa of the wealth produced by African labor, land, and natural resources.”2 Twain says, “Rape was routine, but so was the mutilation of the male and female genitalia in the presence of family members”3. Adam Hochschild captures this very well in his book King Leopolds’s Ghost. Belgium's King Leopold II and his ownership of the Congo from the late 1800 until after the turn of the 20th century is a perfect example of bad leadership and governance. Hochschild...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

The Democratic Republic of Congo

...?Introduction The Democratic Republic of Congo is a Central African country which is considered as the second largest in the African continent and 11th largest country in the world, with a total area of approximately 342,000 sq. km. In terms of population, it is ranked as the 19th most populous nation in Africa, with a population of approximately 71 million people (Turner, 2007). It is a country which is highly rich in natural resources, especially minerals such as gold, copper, cobalt, diamond as well as forests, which, to some extent, are associated with the numerous conflicts that have taken place since the country gained independence from Belgium in 1960 (Prunier, 2008). This paper is a critical evaluation of the country’s history...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Book Review on The Congo-Zaire Experience 1960-98

...ty allows it to use the police and army in any way it chooses. Propaganda through widespread word of mouth, the removal of items that indicate foreign or opposing religious influence are all a part of the need to control in the most supreme way. The only people to benefit from the aid and money supplied to help the nation are those in the upper hierarchy who through their actions curtail the socio-economic development of the nation, often depriving the poor of much needed food and other amenities. Peaceful dialogue is seldom seen as achieving much in the resolution of conflict and a dominant brute mentality is that of suppression of justice and human rights. O’Ballance describes how European colonizers viewed the Congo as having...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Gender Equality in Congo

...Introduction The aim of this research project is to evaluate the effectiveness of various equality and women's empowerment programs of the NGO Monuc, based in the Republic of Congo. Particularly this study will investigate what programs of gender intervention that are used, how the programs are presented to women, how the women experience the programs, and the effectiveness of the programs to meet set goals. The war in Congo has continued for the past decade, and its impact on women has included displacement, rape, family deaths, stolen children and voluntary and involuntary recruitment to the war effort. Although research on the roles and status of women in Africa has expanded over the past two decades, there is still a lack...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Proposal

Live8 and Democratic Republic of Congo - What changed

...Impact of Live8 on G8 and the Democratic Republic of Congo Africa, once known as the Dark Continent, seems to be living up to its The continents’ 850 million people are poorer today than they were 25 years ago (Masand 2005). This is largely as a result of the widespread conflicts the continent has experienced in post-colonial times, which have been the biggest impediments to development. The situation has not been improved by inefficient and corrupt governments and leaders more keen on lining their coffers rather than on addressing the genuine needs of their people. Western governments have also not hesitated to support tyrants and military dictatorships when it suited their interests. In the cold-war era, Africa became the battleground...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

The Limited Rights of Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo

...Literature 1 “Over 20000 People Reached by Successful Advocacy Campaign on a Gender Sensitive Electoral Law in the Democratic Republic of Congo” – from United Nations Development Fund for Women (November 2005) This press release talks about the two-week high-level advocacy campaign for women to have an equal right to vote. It must be noted that during the past years women does not have a right to join in the electoral process of the country. The contents of this paper will provide background on the limited rights that women in Democratic Republic of Congo has as well as ample information on what rights these women deserve to have. The highlights of this paper is when it identifies the very reasons why Congolese women deserve to take...
8 Pages(2000 words)Literature review

Genocide in the Congo

...). It is estimated that, since the beginning of twentieth century, about 6,100,000 people have been killed under the label of genocide. Surprisingly, in most of these cases, particularly in the Congo Genocide, the international community preferred to remain silent. In August 1939, Hitler ordered his Army commanders "to kill without pity or mercy all men, women and children of Polish race and language." ( In the Nazi holocaust, from 1938 to 1945, about 6,000,000 people were massacred by the German dictator. Probably, he had Stalin as his Guru in this cruel act. Through forced famine, Stalin eliminated about 7,000,000 men, women, and children. Thus, this savage impulse...
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay

Presentation on Genocide In Congo

... as Prime Minister. After a short while the power-crazy President Mobutu assassinated him and took over power. He encouraged cross-border infiltration which provoked the Tutsi dominated regime of Rwanda under Kabila which, in turn, triggered the First Congo War. Gradually Laurent Kabila began to face rebellion from within his country and in 1998 Uganda, joined by Rwandan rebels, invaded Congo. This marked the beginning of the Second Congo War. The US tacitly supported Mobutu, and created an outward impression that their concern was to fight communism and Soviet influence. But they had a hidden agenda of tapping the natural resources and using the strategic positions. Mass-scale murders, rape, looting etc characterized both the Congo Wars...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

The peacekeeping mission of the united nations in Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda

... The Peace Keeping Mission of United Nations United Nations organization is an international organization established in 1939 to solve the conflicts among world nations after the Second World War. Further, it aimed at preventing an outbreak of another war. The organization has spread its arms to the Democratic Republic of Congo to end their continued tribal wars (Ager 8). The United Nations Security Council established a resolution mission in Congo on 1999 whose main task was to oversee the Lusaka ceasefire. The mission extended later to reflect the new phase in the country, liaise with all the warring factions, and give technical assistance for deployment of the military of the country. Democratic Republic of Congo is a large country...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Documantry on Congo

..., but for their selfish interests of making more wealth for themselves and their countries (Bate, Elie and Roger). This reality is very evident from the experiences of the Congolese, during the 1880s, noting that they were subjected to forced labor and slavery at their own country. The selfish interests of the colonialist Belgium are evident from the death of the millions of the people that did not work towards meeting the rubber hunger of the King. Further, to conceal his plans and his strategies of exploiting the people of Congo, the king acted as a prototype of colonialists, by hiding under the veil of protecting Africans from slave trade (Bate, Elie and Roger). Unfortunately, it turned out that his system and model of slavery was much...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

How have the wars changed womens lives in the Congo Puechguirbal argues that Congolese women must be a part of the peace process. Do you think this would change things If so, how If not, why

...EFFECTS OF CONGO WAR ON WOMEN AND THEIR INVOLVEMENT IN PEACE MAKING PROCESS EFFECTS OF CONGO WAR ON WOMEN AND THEIR INVOLVEMENT IN PEACE MAKING PROCESS The war in Congo is the largest genocide after the World War II and it took the lives of approximately 5.4 million people. The war took place in two phases, the first Congo war and the second Congo wars taking place in 1996-1997 and 1998-2003 respectively. The war involved the communities of Hutu and Tutsi although it moved across the boarders affecting other communities and even neighboring countries. The war led to there being an estimated two million refugees mainly from the Hutu who settled at the boarders as they escaped the deadly war. The effects of this war were severe...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Democratic Republic of Congo & M23

...Democratic Republic of Congo and M23 Is the East side (Goma) of the Democratic Republic of Congo capable of maintaining its peacefollowing the defeat of the M23? Introduction The Democratic Republic of Congo has faced tremendous conflicts and rebellious activities in the last few decades. Now the state is undergoing extensive peacemaking with the help of international communities. Here, the defeat of M23 played the major role because in other case the state would not have been able to conduct safe and secure progress towards national peace. This paper aims to study different influencing factors in regard to Congo peacemaking strategies and defeat of M23, for instance, the intervention by neighboring countries, international mediators...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Religion in Africa- Explore how the Lemba cult of the Congo conforms to the understanding of an ngoma-type cult of affliction

...he Zaire River required the trade to the coast to follow the routes on the land. For three centuries, all trade used the same inland routes. The Lemba controlled the trade on the north bank (Janzen, 1982). They kept the routes open and regulated the local markets (Janzen, 1982). In addition, they ensured that the rapid international trade did not destroy their local communities. The Lemba cult of the Congo conforms to the an ngoma type cult of affliction. By the mid-eighteenth century, a total of fifteen thousand slaves were shipped annually from the parts of Malemba, Cabinda and Loango (Janzen, 1982). The slaves were drawn from the inland societies which viewed trade as disruptive despite its economic advantages. The conflicts of...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

The African Congo in Heart of Darkness

...The African Congo in Heart of Darkness Many critics have looked at the theme of imperialism that runs through Conrad’s books since his work frequently takes place in parts of the expanding British Empire that were subject to colonialist rule — the African Congo in Heart of Darkness, and the East Indies in many of his other works. Since Conrad based the setting and many of the incidents in Heart of Darkness on his own experiences in the Congo as well as building on the reported experiences of other Europeans in Africa, the question of imperialism and its effects is one that has influenced many critical readings. Some critics, like Frances Singh, have looked at the ways in which Conrad and his narrator Marlow use language to dissociate...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo

...Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo Violence in a majority of African states has been largely accounted to the political and economic instability, internal ethnic and religious conflicts as well as the overall failure of national and international peace keeping missions, to keep the violent forces at bay. The Democratic Republic of Congo, is one such African state, which has been marred by decades of violence and despite innumerable attempts at the international level and mediation by the UN to end the brutal forces and prevent further bloodshed, peace has not yet been successfully restored. Establishment of a stable political, economic and liberal state still remains a distant dream. This paper on violence in the Democratic...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper

The Plan to Eradicate Hunger in the Congo

...Every human being is dependent upon certain basic necessities; the most basic of them all is food, shelter and clothing. Food is extremely important for any human being to survive, poverty and hunger still exists in the world and it’s a real shame for all those people who are doing very little about this. People in a comfortable position must contribute extensively to eradicate Poverty only then will the world become a better place to live in. This paper will throw light upon the food crisis in Congo, a comprehensive understanding of what the exact situation is like in Congo will be provided in this paper. “In the midst of the election process, the people in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo(DRC) are in danger. Why? Because...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic The Congo for FREE!

Contact Us