StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Antibiotic Streptomycin - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis. Streptomycin is also used in the treatment of infective diseases like septic sore throat particularly caused by gram-negative bacteria. It is produced by the soil microbe Streptomyces griseus. Streptomycin is the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER92.1% of users find it useful
Antibiotic Streptomycin
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Antibiotic Streptomycin"

ANTIBIOTIC STREPTOMYCIN: MODE OF ACTION Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis. Streptomycin is also used in the treatment of infective diseases like septic sore throat particularly caused by gram-negative bacteria. It is produced by the soil microbe Streptomyces griseus. Streptomycin is the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered. Albert Shcatz, Elizabeth Bugie and Selman Waksman were the first American biochemists who isolated the microbe in 1943, and reported its antimicrobial activities in 1944. In fact Streptomycin was the first antimicrobial agent developed after penicillin (Ghosh n.pag).
Streptomycin is classified chemically as an aminoglycosidic antibiotic and some of the other aminoglycosides include kanamycin, neomycin, tobramycin and amikain. In general all aminoglycoside make use of their inhibitory action by blocking protein synthesis in bacteria. Streptomycin kills bacteria by inhibiting protein synthesis by combining irreversibly with the 30S subunit of the70S ribosomes, found typically in prokaryotes. To be more specific, it binds with the S12 protein which is involved in the initiation of protein synthesis.
Researchers have found through experiments that streptomycin stops the initiation of protein synthesis by blocking the binding of initiator N-formylmethionine tRNA to the ribosome. Besides, Streptyomycin is also known to stop the normal dissociation of 70S ribosomes into their 50S and 30S subunits. Therefore formation of polysomes is inhibited. Streptomycin action involves distorting the ribosome so that transition from initiation complex (30S-mRNA-tRNA) to chain elongating ribosome is blocked. As a result of this the normal sequence of translation is disrupted and the bacteria is unable to synthesize proteins which is vital for its cell growth and thereby fails to survive. Studies also have shown that the drug also disrupts the cell membrane of susceptible bacteria.
Over the years many bacterial species, such as Bacillus subtilis Strain SRB15T+ have undergone mutations in their genome that enable these to bypass the streptomycin-mediated inhibition of cell growth (Ghosh n.pag). To summarize, streptomycin stops bacterial growth by damaging cell membranes and inhibiting protein synthesis. Streptomycin binds to the 30S ribosome and changes its shape so that it inhibits protein synthesis by causing a misreading of messenger RNA information.
The reason it kills the bacterium and not the human being is because humans have structurally different ribosomes from bacteria which allow the selectivity of Streptomycin antibiotic for bacteria. Streptomycin is administered by regular intramuscular injection and is not given orally. One of the most common adverse effects of this medicine is ototoxicity that can result in permanent hearing loss (Wikipedia n.pag). Other side effects may include headache, nausea, difficulty in hearing, ringing sensation in the ears, loss of balance, fatigue, difficulty in passing urine and itchy rashes on the skin.
Work Cited
Ghosh, S. Streptomycin-A Highly Potent Antibiotic (24 May 2007) Suite 101, 8 Septemper 2007 Wikipedia Streptomycin (5 September 2007) Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 8 Septemper 2007 Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Antibiotic Streptomycin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Antibiotic Streptomycin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1504788-antibiotic-streptomycin
(Antibiotic Streptomycin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Antibiotic Streptomycin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1504788-antibiotic-streptomycin.
“Antibiotic Streptomycin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1504788-antibiotic-streptomycin.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Antibiotic Streptomycin

Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria

...? Antibiotic Resistance School Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotics have been increasingly used in the last six decades for the treatment ofinfectious diseases caused by microbes and bacteria. One of the most obvious causes of the increase in the expectancy of average life over the years is the antimicrobial chemotherapy. Nevertheless, microbes which are resistant to the therapy of antibiotic drug and yet cause the disease expose the people to a lot of health problems. Diseases which can not often be treated by the antibiotics include but are not limited to gonorrhea, pneumonia, wound infections, septicemia and tuberculosis. This can partly be attributed to the fact that microbes and bacteria which spread the infections are quite flexible...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

Antibiotic resistance

...? Prevention of Antibiotic Resistance of the Under the guidance of Outline: The focus of this research is prevention of antibiotic resistance. The paper begins with a thesis statement, followed by an introduction which discusses about the importance and need for prevention of antibiotic resistance. This is followed by review of literature and then a conclusion. Thesis statement How can health professionals prevent antibiotic-resistant infection? Introduction Antibiotic resistance may be defined as a type of drug resistance in which the organism survives exposure to the antibiotic that is administered targeting it. In other words, it is "resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial medicine to which it was previously sensitive" (WHO...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE THREATS

... Threats due to antibiotic resistance Antibiotics are drugs which are used to fight out bacterial infections which help in alleviating the invading pathogen when taken appropriately. However, when these drugs are prescribed when they are actually not required they are not helpful in treating the disease and at the same time the patient is also exposed to the various side effects of the antibiotic. This gives rise to antibiotic resistance over time and the patients are at risk of developing resistant infections in future. These can cause serious illness or even death in the most resistant cases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013). Antibiotic resistance is a growing pandemic which has resulted in serious infections and death...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Antibiotic Lock Technique

...'Use of antibiotic lock central venous catheters in clinical practice: ethical considerations' Introduction In 1980's the concept of antibioticlock technique was developed as a derivation of the heparin lock technique. It involves instilling a highly concentrated antibiotic solution into a catheter lumen and allows the solution to dwell for a specified time period for the purpose of sterilizing the lumen. A group of researchers hypothesized that using a high concentration of bactericidal antibiotics could effectively sterilize a catheter and reduce catheter related sepsis from intraluminal line infections. (Messing,1988). The study will include reviews of the use of antibiotic lock in central venous catheters. To show the efficacy...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Antibiotic Resistance

Development of resistance to antibiotics:- Antibiotics resistance is one of the natures never ending process whereby organisms develop a tolerance for new environmental conditions. This resistance may be due to some acquired factors. penicillin resistance, for example, may result from the production of penicillinase acid. on the other hand, some normally susceptible strains of bacteria may acquire resistance to penicillin. Acquired resistance is due to penicillinase production in genetically adapted varieties of microorganisms. in cultures of penicillin-sensitive bacteria, perhaps one organism in a hundred million may be a penicillin resistant mutant .normally the ration to sensitive to resistant organisms are maintained. when pen...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Bacteria resistance to antibiotic

... of the of the of the The Resistance of Bacteria to Antibiotics Introduction Antibiotics fight against bacteria and microbes, which cause infectious diseases in humans. The invention of antimicrobial chemotherapy has prolonged human longevity. This discovery is a landmark event of the medical sciences in the Twentieth Century. However, over a period of time, these microbes and bacteria have become immune to antibiotic medicines, and this poses a serious threat to the public health (Todar). Antibiotics inhibit the growth of bacteria in humans, animals and plants. Bacteria and microbes cause infectious diseases, and antibiotics can be used against diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. For instance, antibiotics are used in the treatment...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Streptomyces coelicolor and antibiotic production

treptomyces species was co cultured it was found that the metabolites excreted by one strain stimulated the production of the antibiotic in the other. The use of the Bacillus subtilis also found to increase the aerial culture of the Streptomyces by the production of the surfactin, which reduces the surface tension of the medium providing large space for the production of the antibiotics. Similarly the use of the phosphate, the important precursor of the PPP shunt also increased the production of the antibiotic and it also helped to analyze the effect of the co culturing of the strains. Those that did not grow were then trialed in contact with each other and it is noted that there is some growth in some of the specimens where this...
24 Pages(6000 words)Essay

Antibiotic

...Antibiotic Resistance in Livestock and Humans For many years, antibiotic drugs have helped turn previously life-threatening bacterial infections to treatable conditions. Further, antibiotics are used to improve livestock yields by preventing infections and stimulating growth in farm animals. However, the unnecessary administration of antibiotics in healthy farm animals and excessive application in fertilizers has led to high residual levels. The major concern is that antibiotic overuse in livestock presents increased risk for the emergence of resistant strains in livestock and humans. Antibiotics are antibacterial agents used in the treatment of bacterial infections. Bacteria are microorganisms present in many water and soil habitats...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Antibiotic Resistance in Anaerobic Bacteria

... Hospital acquired infections which are now popularly called as nosocomial infections are most often caused by organisms resistant to antimicrobial agents. The frequency of its occurrence has become a source of concern to most clinicians and epidemiologists all over the world. The propensity of these pathogens to develop resistance to the current antimicrobial drugs has made things challenging for most clinicians (Gardner et al, p415). The first antibiotic discovered was penicillin by Alexander Fleming and he had warned us against the irrational use of antibiotics stating “The time may come when penicillin can be bought by anyone in the shops. Then there is the danger that the ignorant man may easily under dose himself and by exposing...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Antibiotic sensitivity

...Antibiotic sensitivity testing Insert of Sensitivity tests are normally used to tests the level of resistance a bacteria has developed for a given antibiotic/ chemical treatment. This aspect is mainly used in epidemiological researches. This paper illustrates a report on the test for sensitivity/ susceptibility of various bacteria to various antibiotics test. This is done using the Kirby and Bauer method. The paper is divided into three sections. Section one is an introduction to the process of bacterial sensitivity to various antibiotics and various methods used in testing for sensitivity. Section two describes the disc diffusion (Kirby Bauer) method and the procedures involved in its applications. The third section contains the results...
4 Pages(1000 words)Lab Report

What is the role of a nurse in the prevention and management of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and clostridium difficle infection in elderly patients

...The Prevention and Management of Antibiotic associated Diarrhea and Clostridium Difficile infection Introduction The prevention and control of antibiotic associated diarrhea and clostridium difficile infection Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is a frequent movement of watery bowel (diarrhea) that occurs in response to medications used for treating bacterial infections (antibiotics). It clears up shortly after someone has stopped taking the antibiotics (Dray and Marteau 2006). In some cases, it leads to more severe form of colitis called pseudo-membranous colitis which causes abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and fever. Clostridium difficile disease is a growing problem in healthcare facilities and occurs when humans ingest spores accidentally...
10 Pages(2500 words)Literature review

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria

...Biology: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a kind of resistance to drugs (antibiotics) threatening the successful prevention as well as treatment of an ever-rising variety of infections whose cause is bacteria. The available data that supports the hypothesis that ABR is on the rise comes from WHO annual reports (more so for 2014) on worldwide supervision of ABR discloses that resistance of antibiotics is no longer a future prediction; its right here with us. In 2012 for instance, there were around 450,000 fresh cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB).Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) has been discovered in over 92 countries (WHO, 2014). The problems that exist in the available data for ABR is the fact...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Antibiotic Resistant Bactria

...RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS Antibiotic resistance, according to Chadwick, , is a form of resistance to drugs by microorganism causing diseases such as bacteria and plasmodium. In this case, these microorganisms are able to survive even after they are exposed to one or more types of antibiotics. Majority of microbial are resistance to a particular type of antibiotics. However, there exist some bacteria that are resistance to numerous antibiotics. Collins (2002) describes them as MDR (multidrug resistant) or superbugs. Multiple researchers have categorized drug resistance as either induced genetic mutation or spontaneous. Through natural selection mechanism, the organisms that survive the killer antibiotic give rise to a new generation...
1 Pages(250 words)Lab Report

Final Paper (Natural Selection and Antibiotic Resistance)

... Lab: Natural Selection and Antibiotic Resistance Experiment performed Due Introduction Evolution –a concept developedby Charles Darwin in 1859 in ‘On the Origin of Species’ publication, is that all life is believed to have progressed from one or a few common ancestors. Natural selection is the mechanism proposed for evolutionary change. In this process, organisms that have advantageous traits have an increased chance of surviving to produce offspring. The offspring will inherit the advantageous mutation and the next generation of organisms will have an improved chance of surviving to produce offspring. Mutation is the natural process of change of the nucleotide sequence of an organism’s DNA. Through this process, bacteria can become...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Antibiotic Resistance of Bacterial Agents of Disease

...APPENDIX 3 APPLICATION FOR BIOL5292M RESEARCH CONTRACT (GRANT PROPOSAL/WORK PLAN Details of Principal Applicant Sur Fore Position Held Telephone Fax E-mail Main contact address if different from company address 2. Project title (not exceeding 120 characters)* Investigations into the mutability of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: effect of antioxidants 3. Abstract of proposed research project (not exceeding 750 characters)* The project aims to study the effect of antioxidants on the mutational frequency and development of antibiotic resistance of planktonic and biofilm cultures of Staphylococcus aureus mutT strains. Bacteria will be grown in media with different antioxidants namely ascorbic acid, tannic acid, taurine...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Proposal

Antibiotic Effectiveness Comparison

...Antibiotic Effectiveness Comparison: To Compare the Effects of Streptomycin and Ampicillin on Serratia Marcescens Using Disc Diffusion Abstract Metal tolerance and antibiotic patterns of Serratia marcescens can be obtained from different sources for analysis. Using the standard minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for these samples, the Kerby Bauer disc diffusion methods are applied as an appropriate method to obtain the antibiotic Serratia strain resistance patterns and the MIC of the metals. The metals that may be detected in these samples include chromium, cobalt, copper, cadmium, and lead. Plasmid curing was also conducted for the specific metal and antibody resistance to confirm the plasmid born transfer within the resistance...
9 Pages(2250 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Antibiotic Streptomycin for FREE!

Contact Us