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Cognitive and Observational Learning - Essay Example

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Summary
Learning can be defined as the process of understanding and acquiring knowledge and skills. This process requires analysis of different types of information. The ability of learning is not only limited to humans but its also related to animals and some machines…
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Cognitive and Observational Learning
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Download file to see previous pages The learning, which is acquired from observing others, is called observational learning. According to the observational learning theory the behavior of an observer changes when he or she views the behavior of another model. (Woods & Boyd, 2008) We first observe the behavior of other people and consequences and then we apply it to our lives. Positive and negative consequences can affect our behavior. There two main principles behind observational learning theory. First, the observer learns and imitates the behavior of another model if the other person has intelligence, good looks and talent. Second, the observer will only reacts to the rewarded behavior of the other person and if the model behavior is punished which is called the vicarious punishment then there are less chances that the observer will imitates the model's behavior.
Cognitive learning theory is concerned with the behavior that involves more than a response and an environmental stimulus. It is related with the experiences of our behavior. The cognitive theory differs from the observational learning theory because it involves analysis of information through thinking and remembering which is our internal event. (Woods & Boyd, 2008) But these internal events are deeply related to the observation of behavior of another model. ...
The main focus of cognitive learning is on the organism, which is the processor of several types of information, which helps in modifying the new experiences. It also helps in relating new experiences with the past experiences in order to organize information for storage. The cognitive theorists assume that the learning occurs in the absence of an obvious behavior. Some cognitive theorist believes that reinforcement is not necessary element of the learning process. An organism only demonstrates latent learning when he or she is willing to show it. Our internal states are responsible for differences in behavior. The early cognitive theorists rejected this idea. So, the behavior varies from person to person depending on the physiology and the metal states.
Conclusion
Learning is the process of understanding and acquiring knowledge and skills. Both the perspectives of learning i.e. observational and cognitive theories are essential for our learning. They are related to each other. Learning starts form observation and collection of information and then this information is processed and analyzed by our minds in order to store the information and later retrieving the stored information.
References:
The world of psychology 6th edition by Wood, S.e., Wood, E.G., & Boyd, D ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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