StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

The Hydrogen Bond - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
The Hydrogen Bond is one of the most important components of existence and vitality. It occurs in many biological structures, such as DNA and protein which are the "building blocks" of life. But perhaps the simplest system to understand the importance of hydrogen bonds is water…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95% of users find it useful
The Hydrogen Bond
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "The Hydrogen Bond"

The Hydrogen Bond is one of the most important components of existence and vitality. It occurs in many biological structures, such as DNA and proteinwhich are the "building blocks" of life. But perhaps the simplest system to understand the importance of hydrogen bonds is water. In liquid water and solid ice, the hydrogen bond is simply the chemical bond that exists between H2O molecules and keeps them together. Although relatively weak, hydrogen bonds are so numerous in water that they play a large role in determining their properties.
The nature of the hydrogen bond in addition to some other factors, such as the disordered arrangement of hydrogen in water imparts unusual properties to H2O that have made conditions favorable for life on Earth. For example, it takes a relatively large amount of heat to raise water temperature one degree. This enables the world's water bodies to store enormous amounts of heat, producing a moderating effect on the world's climate, and it makes it difficult for marine organisms to destabilize the temperature of the ocean environment even as their metabolic processes produce enormous amounts of waste heat.
One of the most important noncovalent interaction within molecules is the hydrogen bond, a dipole formed when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom is shared with a second electronegative atom (typically an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom), such that the proton may be approached very closely by an unshared pair of electrons. Hydrogen bonds play a significant role in the unusual thermodynamic properties of water and ice, and the DNA double-helical and protein a-helical and b-structure conformations are extensively hydrogen bonded.
Hydrogen Bonds can be formed between different molecules (Intermolecular) or between the different parts of the same molecule(Intramolecular). Since there are a large number of hydrogen donors and acceptors in biological systems, hydrogen bonds play an indispensable role in maintaining the structure of biological molecules.
Hydrogen bonding in proteins:
The three dimensional structure of a protein is often dependent on an intricate network of H- bonds that can occur between a variety of atoms, involving atoms on two different amino acid side chains ,atoms on amino acid side chains and water molecules at the protein surface
Regions in a protein molecule in which amino acids are arranged into specific, regular spiral or folded structures are called secondary structure. There are two forms of secondary structure, the alpha helix and the beta pleated sheet. Each of these structures is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the amino acid backbones which are the same as atoms involved in peptide bond formation. Although individual hydrogen bonds are weak, the combination of many hydrogen bonds makes the secondary structure rather stable.
Hydrogen bonding in DNA:
The pairing of bases in DNA occurs due to the hydrogen bonding which involves hydrogen donor and acceptor groups in purine and pyrimidine bases.
Guanine and cytosine form three hydrogen bonds whereas adenosine and
thymine form only two hydrogen bonds.
Thus, it is seen that Intramolecular hydrogen bonds play an important role in maintaining the structure of biological materials, such as secondary (coiled) and tertiary (folded) structures of proteins and the double helix of DNA
Bibliography:
Andrezej Hendrich's notes, viewed May 11, 2006 Strong Hydrogen Bonds in Chemistry and Biology:CL Perrin, JB Nielson - Annu Rev Phys Chem, 1997 - physchem.annualreviews.org
E.D. Isaacs, A. Shukla, P.M. Platzman, D.R. Hamann, B. Barbiellini and Tulk,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 600 (1999).
E.D. Isaacs, A. Shukla, P.M. Platzman, D.R. Hamann, B. Barbiellini and Tulk,
J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 403 (2000).
A. Shukla, B. Barbiellini, T.Buslaps and P. Suortti,
Zeitschrift fur Physikalische Chemie, 215, 315-1321 (2001).
B. Barbiellini and A. Shukla,
Phys. Rev. B 66, 235101 (2002) (preprint cond-mat/0210316). Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“The Hydrogen Bond Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1503721-the-hydrogen-bond
(The Hydrogen Bond Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1503721-the-hydrogen-bond.
“The Hydrogen Bond Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1503721-the-hydrogen-bond.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF The Hydrogen Bond

The Italian Bond Spread

...?The Italian Bond Spread: Its Transformation from Berlusconi’s Third Regime to Monti’s Administration and Beyond Introduction The bond spread or yield spread is the difference between two debt measuring instruments such as a high-risk bond versus a risk-free or stable bond and the difference is used to help investors decide which bond to invest on (Barrios, et al., 2009). If the yield spread between a high-risk and a risk-free bond are low (low basis points), capitalists would invest on the high-risk bond since it is stable in comparison with a risk-free debt measurement, with less risks of losing investments or not earning interest (default). This stability makes the bond more attractive to other investors. However, if basis points...
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay

James bond

... James Bond The official creator of James Bond, Ian Fleming, brought his hero to life in 1953. The rank title Fleming gave to James Bond was a Royal Naval Reserve Commander whose father was Andrew Bond and mother’s name was Monique Delacroix. The spouse’s name was Teresa di Vicenzo who was widowed. The son was named after James Bond’s name James USzuki Bond who was Kissy’s son in fact. Ian Fleming’s James Bond is a British national. This fictional character is the protagonist of James Bond series of films, novels, video games, and comics (Cork, 100-120). In Fleming’s novels, Bond is born in London but he is active all around the globe with his Secret Service Mission and a code number 007. He is made up of many characteristics and is based...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Bond ratings

...1. The higher the coupon rates, the higher the coupon payments and the higher the bond prices. The coupon rates for the various bonds vary so much because normally, the coupon rate is set equal to the going interest rate when a bond is issued (Weston, Besley, and Brigham 289). 2. Bond ratings are based on both qualitative and quantitative factors. Some of the factors considered by the bond rating agencies include the financial strength of the company as measured by various ratios, collateral provisions, seniority of the debt, restrictive covenants, provisions such as a sinking fund or a deferred call, litigation possibilities, regulation, and so on. Representatives of the rating agencies have consistently stated that no precise...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

A Bond

...A Bond When we speak of marriage, more often than not it bears a romanticized image, being that an ideal man would become a knight in a shining armor saving a damsel in distress from a life of helplessness. That is how the picture is portrayed even in fairytales, and unfortunately it has clung unto our consciousness, rooted in childhood, that we should see marriage as some sort of an escape from drudgery to sweep us unto blissful companionship. However, as I had previously implied, this is never really the case with real matrimony. And more often than not, it is not exactly because of love do people go off and get hitched. On the contrary, love is perhaps the last reason they would even consider, because in contemporary terms, love...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Tikristan State Airways: Bond Issue

...Tikristan Airways: Bond Issue Introduction: Tikristan Airways plans to lead bond issue in order to finance its activities and has solicited the services of Temaki and Sukiyako Bank. In view of complaints that have been made against a prior aircraft Company on the issue of default and failure to repay investors, it is imperative that Tikristan State Airways plan its bond issue in such a manner that it serves to alleviate the concerns of the public and the investors. Certain initiatives are being considered by the Company, which may prove to be advantageous: (a) the issue of a global bond (b) settlement through Euroclear and Clearstream. Global bonds: The advantage in issuing global bonds lies in the fact that they may be issued...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Hydrogen fuel cell technology

... Hydrogen fuel cell technology Energy from hydrogen, an environmentally friendly gas, is a much discussed energy source. The use of hydrogen fuel cells in automobiles and industry applications would significantly decrease the amount of pollutants released into the atmosphere, result in a reduction of dependence on foreign oil and expand commercial prospects. Development and deployment of hydrogen technology is at varying stages throughout the world. Iceland, for example, is already well on its way to becoming the first nation to generate 100 percent of its power needs by means of hydrogen fuel-cells. Though hydrogen powered means of transportation are not accessible to the public as yet, it is past the initial research and development...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells

...HYDROGEN ENERGY AND FUEL CELLS Hydrogen is the simplest and most plentiful element on earth which does not exist by itself but combineswith other elements to form substances from which it can be separated by electrolysis or reforming. Fuel cells unite oxygen and hydrogen to produce stationary or mobile electricity. There are 7 types of fuel cells. Unlike the more problematic fossil fuels presently being used, advantages of using hydrogen and fuel cells include ensuring energy safety and regular supply, economic competitiveness, improvement in air quality and reduction of greenhouse gases. Although there are 6 challenges facing fuel cells, nations led by the U.S and Japan have taken the lead in developing hydrogen and fuel cells...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

1. Review of Diesel 2. Review of Hydrogen

The invention of Diesel was financed by M. A. N. of Augsburg (Mathur and Sharma 2000).
Diesel has a boiling range of about 180°C to 300°C. It is widely used because it is cheap and has better thermal efficiency. Today Diesel is produced in three ways: Petroleum Diesel, Synthetic Diesel and BioDiesel.
1. Petroleum Diesel: Petroleum diesel is also called as Fossil Diesel. This diesel is produced from fractional distillation of crude oil. The supply of petroleum diesel is fast depleting and hence the search for other types is becoming all the more important.
2. Synthetic Diesel: Synthetic diesel is made by processing natural gas through a technology which converts the natural gas into Synthetic Diesel. Synthetic diesel is...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

Bond Market Indexation Strategy

... Bond Market Indexation Strategy To consider the need and motivation of inflation in the global debt market, various developed markets propose inflation protected security in terms of bond connection to a price index of prospective customers. These securities can be groped in an asset class of inflation protected securities within every particular country, and inflation protected securities issuance in many countries. For example, the crisis in Libya about the increase of oil prizes makes the investor to reluctantly step into the protection of inflation. To keep against the wearing away of returns, inflation protected securities are mainly government issued bonds whereby the inflation is adjusted according to the principal on each bond...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Vanilla Bond outline

...Vanilla bond Outline The most basic version of a financial instrument is a vanilla bond. It usually includes options, bonds, swaps and futures. It has a simple expiration date, strike price with no additional features. Every bond issued by a company is different with different interest rates because of the difference in the company’s credit ratings and nature of the bonds. In this thesis it has been observed that having better credit ratings not only lowers the interest costs for a company but it also provides financial flexibility to the company in case of future needs. For proving this observation first of all the vanilla bonds of Microsoft and Aon Corp were analyzed, with the focus being on determining the coupon rate, price...
2 Pages(500 words)Coursework

Hydrogen as alternative energy

...Hydrogen as alternative energy “Hydrogen is one of the most important elements in nature for its qualities and use in fuel production.” (Williams, Chris "Pond life: the future of energy". Science (The Register). (2006-02-24). Introduction: Hydrogen constitutes the biology of our body in the form of NADH and serves as a vital natural substance. It produces energy and water as a by-product of the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. Hence the life of any organism depends on the amount of energy produced by this reaction. Some decade’s age, a Nobel Prize winner biochemist, Szent-Gyorgyi enlightened the world about the extensive advantages of hydrogen use and declared it even more important than oxygen for the existence of human race...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars

...Annotated Bibliography: Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars Fackler, M. (2008). Honda starts assembling hydrogen fuel-cellcars. International Herald Tribune. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/318921710?accountid=35812 In this article, Fackler reports of Honda’s corporation unveiling of the first world’s Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicle - FCX Clarity (Fackler, 2008). This was a ceremony held in Tokyo meant to launch the start of FCX Clarity’s mass production (Fackler, 2008). This shows the acceptance of the new emergent knowhow despite key researchers in the energy field foreseeing obstacles that may render it ineffective. Since, there ought to be effective hydrogen distribution and conversion technologies. The source’s...
2 Pages(500 words)Annotated Bibliography

FGR Bond Investment

...Taxable Equivalent Yield Insert Introduction It is also an equivalent taxable interest rate. It is that returns on the taxable investment to make it same as the return on a tax-exempt investment. The use of taxable equivalent yield is when evaluating municipal bond returns. It is also a type of concept that helps one to determine either to invest in taxable or tax-free bonds that is the calculation of the taxable equivalent yield. Such returns would be needed to be earned from a taxable bond to generate the same after-tax return as a tax-free bond. To compare between a taxable and tax-exempt bonds, one has to compare bonds with the same credit ratings and time to maturity (Pogue, 2010). The bond that is a tax-free with a high credit rating...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

The James Bond Franchise Movies

... The James Bond Franchise Movies Introduction The James Bond films franchise is a British series of spy movies. The movies of the franchise are premised on the fictional character of James Bond. The film franchise has existed for a quite long time since its inception in the year 1962. Its long existence makes it quite rich in terms of the history of America in terms of identity and experience (Rubin 43). The franchise has been able to sustain the turbulence within the movie industry over the many years to remain a going concern business franchise. The James Bond movie franchise presents the American experience and identity that has been shifting and transforming over time. The movies produced in the James Bond franchise strongly reflect...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Code of Ethics - the Bond of Confidentiality in Activity of Social Worker

...Code of Ethics - the Bond of Confidentiality in Activity of Social Worker This scenario involving Roberta Jackson not wanting her husband to know that she is a carrier for Huntington’s Disease is a tricky one for a social worker because it can be looked at from two different perspectives. First of all, social workers must agree to retain an individual’s confidentiality, which would mean that the social worker in this case would not be permitted to tell Roberta’s husband. At the same time, however, the social worker has the responsibility to disclose information in order to prevent imminent, foreseeable harm to a client or to others. This brings up the question of whether or not the chance that a child could end up with Huntington’s...
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study

Raising Capital from Equity and Bond Market and Capital Asset Pricing Model and Cost of Capital

...International Finance Market Table of Contents Introduction 3 Rising capital from Equity and Bond markets 4 Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and cost of capital 7 Effect of company’s capital structure on its cost of capital 10 Reference 12 Bibliography 16 Introduction The financial market worldwide has transformed dramatically post World War II. Presently a strong interconnecting link has developed between the various financial markets (Coles, 1981). The term “capital” refers to the fund that a company raises initially to meet its operating expenses. When a company is set up, it raises capital from the lenders and investors to fund its operations. Large companies spend a lot of resources in deciding their optimal capital...
8 Pages(2000 words)Term Paper

Raising Capital from Bond and Equity Markets

...I. Introduction This paper aims to explore how companies raise capital from the debt and equity markets. These include initial public offering, seasoned equity offering, and straight debt issues. Various finance literatures which explore the topics in-depth are looked into. Also, the importance of the capital asset pricing model for firms which want to evaluate their cost of capital, is explored in the next part. The link between CAPM, the required return on equity and the weighted average cost of capital is explored, with the help of various academic journals. II. Body A. Raising capital from bond and equity markets i. The initial public offering When a company is in need of capital, there are two options which will comprise...
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study

Hydrogen Bonding and the Importance to Life

... Hydrogen bonding and the importance to life Hydrogen bonding refers to the interaction between pairs of atom with innate high affinity to electron. This is a natural process of attraction distinct and is particular to intermolecular communion which is a consequence of duo partial electric charges within the continuum of opposite polarity. This essay will attempt to correlate hydrogen bonding as essential to sustainability to life. Let us define the basic theory first before proceeding to technical and so complex thought of hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen is represented as H2 in the periodic table of elements. Its basic feature is that it is without color, odor, an insipid gas and is naturally formed by diatomic molecules (Crabtree, Siegbahn...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

Alices Adventures in Wonderland - A Natural Human-Animal Bond

...Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland: A Natural Human-Animal Bond Introduction In the wake of increasing number of endangered and extinct animals, the relevance of a discussion on the rights of animals is irrevocable. However, despite the adversities caused to the animal world by the human activities, it cannot be ruled that man dislikes animals totally. There have been many books and creative literary works to prove that the human affinity for animals is a part of his natural instinct. This fact is affirmed by the book ‘Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland’ written by Lewis Carroll. This story features many common animals in their personalized form with a view to attribute interactive characterization to them with the protagonist, Alice. Because...
6 Pages(1500 words)Book Report/Review
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic The Hydrogen Bond for FREE!

Contact Us