Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...


Comments (0) Cite this document
Professor Michael Ayers is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at Oxford University. He is the author of multiple books which includes important books on philosophy. His most important includes the work on the English philosopher John Locke. He has written 3 books on that reflect his view on Locke viz.
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.9% of users find it useful
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "LOCKE BY MICHAEL AYERS"

Download file to see previous pages Locke's view on the 'idea' itself center on the fact that he makes no distinction between the intellect and the imagination. Therefore, Locke stood to believe that the idea was a sensory image which is why many researchers refer to him as an imagist. Locke explains an idea as "Whatever it is, which the mind can be employed about thinking" (p. 45). As a result, many have concluded that Locke meant to leave the definition ambiguous, perhaps to allow individuals to make their own decisions. Others believe that Locke was following the same philosophical lines as Gassendi, who used the word in a more fantastical theoretical framework. However, this conclusion is challenged, give the fact that Locke rarely used the words fantasy or fancy when discussing ideas.
Yet Locke strongly encouraged people to refrain from thinking that their interpretation of objects and ideas were exactly as they appeared outside of the mind. He draws on the idea of the memory as a place to save, in a way, ideas, though, again, they are not perfect representations. Ayers uses the analogy of a bird and a song to explain this point. If the bird hears a song and then produces it the next day, people may tend to say the bird memorized the song. Locke would say that the bird saved the song in its mind to use to compare the song he is singing. Likewise, children think when they have something to think about. They produce their own mental images, but these images are not exactly like those they see. Thus, Locke's idea is a sensation that is saved through retention in the mind.
Ayers claims that Locke was reluctant to apply any intellectual activity to these sensations. He did not separate the imagist mind from a higher, intellectual mind. He never saw a reason to do this, unlike other philosophers. Of course Locke recognized the existence of wit, judgment, wisdom, and madness but only in terms of what the person did with his existing ideas. Descartes and Locke debated the idea of separating conceiving an idea and imagining an idea as either the same or separate functions. Descartes argued that one can conceive of a particular shape but not image it since he does not know exactly what it looks like. Locke countered with the argument that if one can reason about the number of sides and lengths of the shape, we can imagine it from those existing ideas. Ayers concludes that this is an argument against not only Descartes but also the Cartesian views.
Ayers notes that in Locke's discussion of abstract ideas, he seems to contradict himself. He says that ideas such as jealousy and lies cannot be imagined by the mind. This seems to suggest that Locke did recognize other conceptions of the mind. Locke later explained that these abstract concepts were ideas "partially considered" (Ayers, p. 49).
Ayers final argument here in considering Locke an imagist lies within the idea of an intuition of universal truth or a priori knowledge. Ayers explains this idea using diagrams. He says that philosophers like Descartes say that understanding diagrams, charts, etc. occurs because of higher intellectual processes in the mind. Locke argues that these ideas on paper are representations or copies of what already exists in the mind. For example, a line or angle is something ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“LOCKE BY MICHAEL AYERS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(LOCKE BY MICHAEL AYERS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
“LOCKE BY MICHAEL AYERS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


Michael Hill

...? Michael Hill Marketing Report Executive Summary Michael Hill International Limited, hereafter Michael Hill, is a jewellery firm headquartered in Queensland, Australia. Based on the firm, this report seeks to provide an in-depth analysis of the marketing strategy of the company. Following the conventional marketing report, it also analyzes the situation and position of the firm, evaluating the market segment and competitiveness of the business. In addition, the report analyzes the firm’s business and marketing strategy, including the marketing mix of the company (Hill, 2012a). Furthermore, the report also provides a break-even analysis emphasizing on the cost/price and volume relationship. Lastly, the report examines the control in place...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

Pugh v. Locke Case

...? Pugh v. Locke case Pugh v. Locke case The Pugh v. Locke case was a delicate case that focused on findings based on the Alabama board of corrections (Gerald, 1978). The complaint in Pugh v. Locke was filed by one of the inmates of G. K. Fountain Correctional Center on February 26, 1974 (Robbins & Michael, 1977). It was clear that, in those actions, the plaintiffs hunted for injunctive relief pursuant for the denial of their eighth and fourteenth amendment rights. This article will list problematic issues for prisons in the case and their solutions. This paper will also compare these problems with the current state of prisons. On February 26, 1974, an inmate of G. K. Fountain Correctional Center filed a complaint concerning the state...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Kant and Locke

... Both Kant and Locke Both Kant and Locke were influential philosophers for the modern era. Each of them specialized in a different area of stress and interest, yet all of them tried to create an impression for humankind and questioned the manner in which human beings interact within the society. The two are not only concerned with the individual, but also the manner in which the individual interacts within a group, and the consequent tensions that may occur out of these interactions. This essay attempts to explore the manner in which both Locke and Kant address the concept of human freedom. Freedom, or the manner in which individuals are in a position to act on their own accord, is an important philosophical argument in the contemporary...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay


... Locke John Locke was A British philosopher who was best known for his personal identity theory and an anti itarian state theory. John Locke contended that owning property privately was everyone’s natural right since it is the only manner through which man can be self-sustaining in physical comfort. Despite the fact that resources on earth are by nature without prior claim by an individual and in common ownership, Locke argues that, labor is required in order to utilize the resources (Locke 34). Labor, in this sense, can be defined as application of lawful and natural effort by an individual to own what was previously common property without any individual owner. Without getting consent from the original owner, at this point, no one can...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

John Locke

... which will criminalize forms of property acquisition which may be deemed unethical, such as stealing. In the same regard, a state as a civilized society will declare life as belonging to the state. In turn, it is life from which labor emanates. Thus, the use of labor to acquire wealth may be bridled when for instance the state compels its subjects to participate in community activities without any pay. This is exemplified by mandatory government-stipulated national cleaning days. Works Cited Feallsanach, Am. “Locke and Libertarian Property Rights.” Critical Review, 12.5 (2005): 319- 323. Print Zuckert, P. Michael & Mack, Erick. “John Locke.” The Review of Politics, 73.1 (2011): 175. Print...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay


...1. Locke's A Letter, etc is the foundation for the modern separation of church and (and the first amendment for the US constitution). What two authorities does Locke invoke in stating his case What is the purpose of politics for Locke Of Religion Compare his approach with that of St. Augustine and of William of Okhan (nationalism) Locke had written A Letter Concerning on Toleration as early as 1666, but it never saw the light during his lifetime. In 1685, when events in France turned his thoughts to the question of toleration, Locke wrote a letter to a Dutch minister, Limborch. He was then urged to publish this letter on toleration; it was accordingly printed in Latin in 1689. In the same year it was translated into English and published...
7 Pages(1750 words)Book Report/Review

John Locke

...The Father of liberal philosophy, John Locke, was born to the family of a country solicitor on August 9, 1632. Locke's initial years were spent in the village of Wrington in Somerset. Locke's father was a small landowner who fought in the English Civil War on the side of the Puritans. From his early childhood, Locke was inspired by the ideals of his Puritanical father. Locke was a keen observer and a fast learner and had a deep interest in exploring philosophical and Biblical questions. From 1646 to 1652, Locke studied at the Westminster School in London. After graduating from this school, in 1652, he started attending Oxford University. It was here that he got his formal knowledge of Latin, logic and metaphysics. Though he completed his...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Philosophy of Locke

...Philosophy of Locke, SPINOZA AND HUME "Good and evil, reward and punishment, are the only motives to a rational creature: these are the spur and reins whereby all mankind are set on work, and guided." (J. Locke) John Locke (1632-1704) was also called as "The Philosopher of Freedom" for his views and thoughts on Christianism. In Locke's view, unreal events (miracles), may be used only by Lord to get attention of people when his will is to show or to mark something very important. Therefore we sometimes ought to believe proofs about a miracle we have a reliable witness. The significance of the revelation and the unbelievable nature of the miracle seem to proof one another. Nicholas Wolterstorff says on this topic, that Locke "assumes...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Rape of the Locke

...Order 342492 Topic: Rape of the Lock This the ‘laughter medicine’ of the eighteenth century England prescribed not by the doctor, but by the poet Alexander Pope (1688-1744) The poem satirizes how a trifle becomes a great issue with men of upper class society. The poet holds in admiration Belinda and the society in which she moves. He was not part of the ‘beau-monde’. (Society of the elite) His parents were not that rich. He associated with intellectuals and poets and their interaction was at Will’s Coffee House. The elite frequented the Hampton court. The poem provides the pen-portrait relating to the estrangement of two families and important reason for that is the Baron’s theft of a lock of hair. A dire offence is seen...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

John Locke

... Critical Analysis of John Locke Outline I. Introduction The section contains some background information on John Locke. It points the most important beliefs that John Locke is known to have believed. It ends with the introduction of the thesis statement. Thesis Statement: Locke uses philosophy, religion and politics to emphasize the importance of human freedom. II. Analysis of Literary Works In this section, the paper analyzes the two most notable literary works of John Locke. A Concern for Human Understanding and Treatises of the Government are discussed in details. The discussion includes analysis of the motivating principles and the styles adopted by John Locke in his work. The section relates the stand that John Locke take in his...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Disclosure by Michael Crichton

...Disclosure Introduction: The film “Disclosure” (1994) based upon the novel by Michael Crichton, directed by Barry Levinson and starring Demi Moore and Michael Douglas, presents an interesting premise – the reversal of roles in a case of sexual harassment. The film also highlights the power play that is a constant feature in mega corporations, especially during a merger as is the case in “Disclosure” and the fading of ethical issues when it is overpowered by the greed for profits. Summary of the plot of “Disclosure”: The protagonist is Tom Sanders, employed at a Seattle based Company – Digital Communications (Digicom). His wife is a lawyer and the rich couple stand to become even richer because Digicom is in the process of a merger...
8 Pages(2000 words)Movie Review

The Marketing of Michael Vick

The American culture raises a particular personality to hero status. They especially idolize the sports hero because they see sports as a morality play and then use it as a metaphor for life (Americana, 2003). The sportsmen face obstacles and struggle to overcome them. The fact that they overcome the struggles gives the common man someone to look up to. Besides, the sportsmen do heroic deeds off the field like engage in charitable work. This becomes attractive to the common man and the media then uses such personalities to market products. The sports heroes then become brand ambassadors.
One of the most popular American football players is Atlanta Falcons’ quarterback Michael Vick. He became popular because of his abili...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

The Philosophy and Theories of John Locke

The ‘state of nature’ according to social contract theory describes the hypothetical condition of humanity before the state’s foundation and its monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force (Wikipedia). The 17th and 18th-century thinkers believed that whatever good things one had in the ‘state of nature’ should not be lost when one entered into society. They even evaluated the government based on this condition. The citizens of New Orleans like everyone else had been living in the ‘state of nature’ and hence their sentiments and revolt against the government is natural when their expectations have not been met. Locke believed that in the state of nature, men mostly kept their promises....
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

Analysis of Michael Sandel's Liberalism and Theory of Justice and Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State and Utopia

When an acquisition is made, it would be just so long as such an appropriation by one person is not achieved at someone else's expense. Nozick states: "It needn't be that the foundations underlying desert are themselves deserved, all the way down" (Nozick 225). In understanding the proviso that one person's appropriations of X do not make others worse off, Nozick offers a two-part argument. The first part of the argument assumes that an individual possesses an asset X, irrespective of whether or not he deserves it, and his possession of it does not violate anyone else's right to possess it. Based upon this, Nozick offers the argument that if another asset Y arises out of X through a process that does not violate anyone else's righ...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment

Analysis of John Locke and Jeremy Bentham Phylosophy

John Locke spent six years there before he went on to Oxford in 1652 where he studied Logic, Metaphysics and Classical Languages. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1956 and continued in Oxford where he was successful in achieving his Master of Arts degree in 1658. It was after receiving this degree that he decided to study medicine and he came under the influence of renowned physician Thomas Sydenham. Locke later assumed the position of personal physician to Lord Ashley, who was known as one of the richest men in England at that time, and also Earl of Shaftesbury.

Locke's presence at Ashley’s home was more than that of a physician. After Lord Ashley became Earl of Shaftesbury and declared Lord Chancellor,...
9 Pages(2250 words)Term Paper

Michael by William Wordsworth

We shall prove how this work of Wordsworth fits as a ‘poem of nature’, an investigation and examination of human life, the choice of intuition against reason and pastoral against urban and a transcendental spiritual truth – all of which are the features of Romanticism.
‘Michael’ is famous for embodying a feature that Wordsworth is particularly popular for – the feature of ‘nature poetry’. Nature is a part of human life that is connected with the spirit of God. The understanding, experience and the proximity of man with nature define spiritual realization. And indeed, for this reason, he writes:
This emphasis of nature in this and other poems are often noticed in his elabora...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Analysis of Ethical Theories of Michael Sandel

...Background review Each video episode of Michael Sandel’s lectures consists of two parts. The first episode consists of two parts. The first part introduces the moral principles and the right thing to do given certain situations or acts. The consequentialist moral principle locates morality in the consequences of an act. The categorical moral principle locates morality in certain duties and rights. On the second part, Sandel tried to discuss the principle that the just thing to do is maximize the utility and that is to maximize pleasure. Based on the utilitarian principle of Jeremy Bentham, humans like pleasures and not pain. For Bentham, the right thing to do then is to maximize overall level of happiness, which is the highest principle...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Omnivores Dilemma by Michael Pollan

...Omnivore’s Dilemma Omnivore’s Dilemma Introduction Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals is a nonfiction book by Michael Pollan. This book was published in 2006, where Pollan is asking the question of what will be had for dinner. This is a problem faced by human beings on a daily basis, because of the large choice of food varieties available, which results into a dilemma. There exists a wide range of foods available within the food chains to sustain humanity such as industrial food, organic food and those foods that man forages himself. The book illustrates the American way of living from the source to the final meal that is eaten. From an economical viewpoint, there are many shortcomings of the book worth noting... Dilemma...
9 Pages(2250 words)Book Report/Review

Drug Problems and Poverty in All Souls by Michael McDonald

... Drug Problems and Poverty in "All Souls" by Michael McDonald McDonald grew in the best in the world, South Boston.All souls: A family story from Southie is McDonald’s story that tries to educate the society about common social problems such as drug abuse and poverty. In his book, he talks of white in the US and how affects everyone in society. For a long time, people have held that poverty is a menace that attacks only the minority people in society. This assertion is not true and will never be true. In real sense, poverty is unequal in terms of ethnicity; however, the pain of wandering in poverty is colorblind. Poverty is stressful and painful no matter what or who you are. In the novel, McDonalds discusses his code of silence in his...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

The Turning Point for Michael Jackson

... The Turning Point for Michael Jackson Michael Jackson was born in Indiana on 29 August, 1958 in Indiana. His father was a guitarist but he quit his music career to fend for his family. From an early age, he molded his sons into a musical group. Michael emerged as this group’s lead vocalist and was a stunning performer. The group started working on opening acts for R&B artists such as James Brown and others. Subsequently, the group moved to the city of Los Angeles where they started working on their music careers and dancing. The group was introduced to the music industry in August 1969 and later on served as opening acts for the Supremes. Their albums became number one hit on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart in January 1970. As such, the paper...
9 Pages(2250 words)Article
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic LOCKE BY MICHAEL AYERS for FREE!

Contact Us