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Literature ReviewEvaluation (Cryptorchidism and Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy) - Essay Example

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Summarized Review of the Article: In this paper by Damgaard, I.N. et al. published in Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 115, Number 2, 2007, the authors examine the association of parental alcohol exposure and its adverse effects on the fetus. The article concentrates on the investigation of association of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the incidence of undescended testes in the newborn babies…
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Literature ReviewEvaluation (Cryptorchidism and Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy)

Download file to see previous pages... Before doing the purpose statement, the authors have briefly discussed the problem of cryptorchidism in that it is a very common genital malformation in males, of which the aetiology is unknown. A brief review of literature on this topic has been done by the authors, and they have clearly indicated the possibility of implications of developmental genetic defects and other fetomaternal factors. Out of this literature review, the authors make a case for such a study in that the prevalence of such a disorder has been connected with parental lifestyle changes and environmental factors. Since normal testicular descent happens in two phases, transabdominal from 8 to 17 gestational weeks and inguinoscrotal from 26 to 35 weeks of gestation. Therefore, the authors argue that the physical, chemical, and biological, and endocrinologic stimuli for descent of testes lie in the fetus and the mother. The literature review assumes great importance here, since to hypothesize the research question, the authors have done a thorough search of relevant literature. The authors connect maternal alcohol consumption as a probably cause for this. ...
The authors rightly argue that most of the existing researches used retrospective data that might be compromised by recall and selection bias. Therefore, the authors establish the purpose of the research in that if a positive association is probable and indeed exists, it would be worthwhile to undertake the research so it may help prevent this problem in the newborn.
Hypothesis: With a precise and succinct literature review, the authors logically derive the scientific thread of the assumption that maternal alcohol consumption may corrupt the fetal environment in uterus during pregnancy when the fetus is developing. Therefore, the reader is keen to believe the hypothesis that maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is positively associated with cryptorchidism. However, the gap in the existing research can be filled up by a prospective population-based cohort of pregnant women and their male offspring. To be able to do this, the authors used both qualitative and quantitative information on maternal alcohol consumption and other data on confounding lifestyle factors. The hypothesis statement is precise, well-structured, and generates interest in the reader, so he is keen to know the findings in the authors' research.
Methods: Since this is a questionnaire study across different locations, the authors standardised the questionnaire, and the responses were collected in the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy. Detailed history of alcoholism was collected in relationship with the frequency, amount, and binge episodes. Other lifestyle parameters were also collected. It was a joint perspective birth cohort study with sufficient sampling to be able to generate validity and reliability. Simultaneous with the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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