This essay attempts to show that feminism in American cinema is full of unfulfilled promises, and that despite the best of intentions the results have been much less than what was expected and what could have been achieved. Three articles from the readings - by De Lauretis, Mayne, and Hammett - will be used to support the arguments showing that feminism in American cinema over-promised and under-delivered and that they were driven by their over-powering ambition to use masculine logic in order to change and transform gender-biased patriarchal social structures with the use of pass intellectual fads that were verbalized by a troupe of homosexual male (Foucault), Freudian (Lacan) and Marxist (…
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One meaning is "films made by women" and the other meaning is "films made for women" (p. 27). The first pat of her article attempts to explain how each field within these traditional definitions was transformed by feminism over time, using the "woman at the keyhole metaphor" to show how women gained status from being objects of voyeuristic curiosity and into the curious voyeurs themselves.
As Mayne argues (p. 28), there is a need to consider "what relationships women have had traditionally and historically, as filmmakers and as film consumers, to the medium" in order to "understand how women make movies". Nothing could be farther from the truth, but this one-sided argument founded on masculine logic hides a basic natural fact: that men and women are different, and thank heavens that they are, and that women and their feminist representation in cinema would be a constantly evolving and a permanently complex and elusive goal. Mayne explains (p. 33-34) that while it is true that having women at the other end of the keyhole is a typical sign of masculine voyeuristic tendencies, it is also true that women love being seen, watched, and admired.
They want to feel and look beautiful, not for any reason or motive that is a sign of inferiority, but because that is how they are wired, and nothing is bad about that. It is only "not good" if such a natural human tendency is associated with a (blonde-haired or beautiful-faced) lack of intellectual capacity. This knee-jerk subjective reaction, no matter how one looks at it, and whether it is applied to women or men, is more a reflection of the one who makes rash judgments based on looks and appearances and not based on interior substance.
Women are the ultimate dialecticians, Mayne declares, recalling Ruby Rich (p. 40), who declared that "for a woman today, film is a dialectical experience in a way that it never was and never will be for a man under patriarchy". Like Brecht's ultimate dialectician who lives the tension of two different cultures, "women bring into the movie theater a context and a certain coding from life outside the theater". This is perhaps the reason why women love different films in different ways, and why some films made by and for women reach their audiences in unique ways.
Feminism in cinema has certainly shaped the way actors act and filmmakers - both men and women - do films, making the human experience richer and more sophisticated. This is good for all, not only for men and the patriarchy to understand women a bit better, but also for women to better understand themselves and how they look at the world. Making, watching and critiquing movies are, indeed, different and complex (p. 41-42), and reflect the innate and natural differences between men and women that provide the artistic cinematic world a dialectic tension that contributes to its magic.
Mayne's ambivalent view of women's cinema is carried over to the definition of the feminine aesthetic by de
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(Feminism in American Cinema Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
“Feminism in American Cinema Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1499810-feminism-in-american-cinema.
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” (Toy story 3 2010). For Europeans, film was primarily used for political purposes. Americans, on the other hand used film as a consumer product. Metaphorically, films have served as the “American Dream” linking issues through cinema to commercial gain (Toth 2009).
According to the paper cinema since the time of its inception into the faculty of visual arts not only did influence the cultural paradigm of a nation, but also did influence the socio-cultural and socio-economic realm of a nation as an enterprise and the amount of resources engaged with it. Hollywood as a seat of film industry, and being the world’s largest one did influence the socio-cultural and socio-economic activity of America right from its classical period.
Three articles - by Teresa De Lauretis, Judith Mayne, and Jennifer Hammett - provide key insights as to why this is so: efforts of feminists to influence cinema were driven by intellectual frameworks formulated by masculine logic and verbalized by a troupe of homosexual (Foucault), Freudian (Lacan), and Marxist (Althusser) male academics.
Films' powerful mis-figuring of the female is what feminism seeks to disempower. The visual is therefore a crucial visible part of any feminist theory.
This is for two reasons: first because the visual is epistemologically privileged in Western knowledge and second because cultural images often subtly, or not so subtly, codify and articulate 'backlash' misogyny ( DuPlessis, 1985).It is hard not to sense that the ostentatious display in Fatal Attraction of a hysterical career woman and the audience delight in her murder reflects an ineffable feeling of a more deep-rooted hatred.
Rebecca a film adaptation of a novel written by British writer Dame Daphne du Maurier, demonstrated the power that a male character had over not only one or two but three women in a household – a deceased first wife who rebelled against the stifling pressure of her husband, a second wife (Rebecca) crushed helplessly by the pressure of gender expectations, and the hostile housekeeper.
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This practical focuses on the structure of key enzymes in the serine proteases family, chymotrypsin and subtilisin. The active site of the two enzymes which determines their peptide specificity will be studied with
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