We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Nobody downloaded yet

Genome-wide screen for Salmonella genes required for long-term systemic infection of the mouse - Essay Example

Comments (0)
The pathogenic Salmonella species are a group of intracellular gram-negative bacteria that are known to be the cause of a wide range of diseases across the globe. The subspecies enterica in particular is alleged to cause about 99 percent of these pathological conditions…
Download full paper

Extract of sample
Genome-wide screen for Salmonella genes required for long-term systemic infection of the mouse

Download file to see previous pages... In this respect animal models of the disease process being caused by Salmonella have proved to be quite useful.
The process by which Salmonella invades and then onwards maintains itself in the host species is not only a complicated but indeed and intriguing process. It is also an example of adaptive evolution and selective preservation of a genotype. Given its prevalence across a range of warm blooded hosts it has been possible to study the infection and virulence factors in several species. For instance while, murine infection with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium has been used largely to replicate human typhoid (caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi), bovine infection caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin or S. enterica serovar Typhimurium has been the extensively used to model intestinal disease. The ability of Salmonella to exist within its host for months following the initial invasion requires it to resist any innate immunity or more likely evolve/adapt to resist the host resistance. Since these bacteria are well able to establish long term system infection in their hosts, the genetic factors responsible for such ability need to be well established to counteract any pathogeneicity.
While, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a strictly human pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a murine pathogen that is increasingly been used to model human typhoid (caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi). ...
In the mouse model, S. Typhimurium invades epithelial cells and can survive and proliferate in macrophage before entering the blood stream and causing a systemic infection. The macrophages are ideal places for the bacteria as they are able to elude the host's immune response in this. Indeed it has been evidenced that the longest duration of stay for slamonella within the host occurs in the macrophages.

However for the most part understanding of the murine salmonella species has been limited to the Nramp1 susceptible (Nramp1s) mouse strains i.e. the BALB/c and C57Bl/6. Macrophages from Nramp1s mice permit a much higher rate of serovar Typhimurium replication in vitro as well as in vivo as compared to Nramp1r (Nramp1 is functional) macrophages. While this has upuntil date allowed for observation of the diseased condition, the hosts (mice) invariably are most severly affected by the bacteteria considerabily limiting the scope of study.

The paper here however focuses on the novel Salmonella persistence model based on the mouse strain 129X1/SvJ (Nramp1r), which are typically resistant to the replication of the bacteria not succumbing easily to the virulence. Consequently the bacteria can be obtained from systemic sites even up to an year post infection which would help to increase the time spectrum of study if need be.

Clearly as intricate an adaptive mechanism as seen in the samlonella species would require the contribution of several genes and virulence factors.The invasion-associated genes are required for intestinal secretory and inflammatory disease, that intracellular survival in both the intestinal epithelium and macrophages is essential for ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Genome-Wide Association Study
These variations affect the traits of many people. These traits are responsible for making some individuals susceptible to some disease while others are not. In the past, some diseases were only associated with the family inheritances. Many people considered the spread of the disease as a family factor and they believed that only the family members could only be infected by the disease.
15 Pages(3750 words)Term Paper
Short Term Long Term Goal
Explain how an MBA will contribute to these goals. Coming from a family of entrepreneurs, I was taught early in life that while formal education can teach you how to earn a living, self-education can make you a fortune. That is why although I’ve already had a considerable amount of success in my business ventures owing to my raw talent and the aptitude for business that I have gained over the years, I realized that it was necessary for me to refine my business and thinking skills and I know I will be able to do this with the foundation of an excellent Tsinghua MBA program.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Short Term Long Term Goal
Throughout my life I have been always involved in various forms of business practices. As an eight-year old kid, I was already engaged in the art of trading cards for a profit. The ability to display a basic understanding of sales and returns was inherent to me right from the start.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Group Long Term Insurance
They are cheaper than individual long term insurance. They may be offered by employers and are tax-free to employees and tax deductible for employers who bear the premium expenses. Group long term insurance care started in the 1980s. Long term insurance cover to individuals was characterized by high premiums and limited benefits therefore many companies had to think of group long term insurance as an employee benefit (Wiener and Illston 66).
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
About Genes. DNA is the basic form in which instructions and information on the characteristics of any organism is stored in the cells. This information and instructions for the synthesis of the proteins is stored in DNA molecule in form of a sequence of nucleotides, including Adenine, Thymine, guanine and cytosine; commonly abbreviated as A, T, G and C respectively, in a given order.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Screening a genome wide deletion library for mutants sensitive to gemcitabine
The genes involved in DNA repair are a myriad (Wei & Chen, 2006). The mode of operation of the genes is to excise lesions or mitigate possible errors that might arise in the course of the repair. DNA repairs include Base excision together with mismatch excision.
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
The Efficacy And Advantages Of Inserting Foreign Genes Into The Chloroplastic Genome Instead Of The Nuclear Genome
In DNA, one side of the double helix terminates in a 3' end while the other side, aligned in the opposite direction (antiparallel), terminates in a 5' end. To these projecting 3' ends, a short series of identical nucleotides containing adenine were attached through the activity of another enzyme.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Screen History and Research: Long Essay
, academic criticism has predominantly viewed mainstream cinema as a sequence of emptily expensive, aesthetically impoverished spectacles” Maltby, 1998: 22). This seems particularly true when one is speaking of the Western genre, perhaps because the main ingredients of this
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
Human Genome Project / genetic discrimination based on testing for harmful genes
Genetic test records may form the basis of decisions made by parities such as insurers and employers and this negatively affects the people with the “wrong gene” (Schoonmaker and Williams 30). The groups working
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Long-Term Investment Decision
The company has been performing well so far, until recently when cost of raw material started increasing and managers were asked to devise a plan in response to inelastic price
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Let us find you another Essay on topic Genome-wide screen for Salmonella genes required for long-term systemic infection of the mouse for FREE!
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us