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Epidemiological Significance of Cholera - Term Paper Example

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The "Epidemiological Significance of Cholera" paper explain the outbreak, transmission, and control of cholera. Today “the disease is endemic in southern Asia and parts of Africa and Latin America”. The traditional model of causation of infectious diseases is the triangle of epidemiology…
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Epidemiological Significance of Cholera
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Download file to see previous pages Poverty and man are the hosts; while unsanitary conditions, contaminated food, and polluted water are the environmental factors facilitating interaction between the host and the agent (Bailey et al., 2005). Cholera is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. The bacteria’s 01 or 0139 antigen indicates a marker of epidemic potential for the disease.

In the epidemiology of cholera, a characteristic feature is its emergence in a regular seasonal pattern in regions where the disease is endemic. It appears in explosive outbreaks frequently starting in numerous distinct foci concurrently, revealing the possibility of environmental factors forming the trigger for the epidemic process (Faruque et al., 1998). Currently, cholera is once again a public health priority requiring an integrated and comprehensive approach to controlling the disease. This is because of the changing dynamics of cholera occurrence, besides “the emergence of new strains of V. Cholerae that cause more severe clinical manifestations, increased antimicrobial resistance, and climate change” (World Health Organization, 2012, p.294).

The cholera outbreak in west Africa which spread to central Africa in 2005 affected over eight countries, causing tens of thousands of cases, and high mortality. The high incidence from the outbreak is attributed to the host factor of poverty, and environmental factors related to heavy rains causing flooding and water contamination. Because of poor surveillance, the actual extent of the problem is unknown (Editorial, 2005).

The transmission of an epidemic of cholera following its outbreak occurs in three time periods: “the primary, saturation, and the waning phases” (Kwofie, 1976, p.128). In the study conducted on the complex cholera epidemic pattern in Western Africa from 1970 to 1972, two principal paths of diffusion were identified from the general trend; these included the regular pattern of the coastal path and the more complicated pattern of the Sahelian path. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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