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Sodium, Potassium, and Urea - Case Study Example

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This paper presents a case of primary hyperaldosteronism or Conn’s Syndrome. Conn’s Syndrome is mostly seen asymptomatically or presents with only a few symptoms and is seen in a young patient mostly. The patient in the case study is 30 years old so that favors the initial diagnosis of Conn’s syndrome…
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Sodium, Potassium, and Urea
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Download file to see previous pages In Conn’s syndrome, there is hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis which causes low ionized leading to muscular weakness which is also present in this patient. Details of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis will be explained later.
The patient also presents with hypertension. Most of the time (95% of cases) the cause of hypertension is unknown and it is also called essential hypertension. However, hypertension can be secondary to some other reasons and that seems to be the primary case here. It is due to excessive secretion of aldosterone which causes increased levels of renin and hence causes salt and water retentions(Davidson Medicine 2010 p 778)
There are three lab results that were given in this case, level of Sodium (146mmol/L), Potassium (2.1mmol/L) and Urea (7.2 mmol/L). Levels of potassium seem to be low and the patient has hypokalemic where the level of sodium is at the higher levels and is not actually raised too much and urea is also slightly on the higher side. These lab findings, when correlated to the clinical history, are a sure finding that is seen in patients of Conn’s Syndrome because of excessive salt and water retention (Kumar and Clark 2011 p657).
It is important to differentiate secondary hyperaldosteronism caused by excessive rennin from primary hyperaldosteronism which can be caused by adrenal hyperplasia or primary adenoma of the adrenal gland and since our patient has a short history he most likely to have cons syndrome or adenoma. Due to this, there would be excessive secretion of aldosterone which would act in the distal tubule of the kidney. This would cause the absorption of sodium and loss of potassium ion. Hypokalemia can cause metabolic alkalosis which can cause muscle weakness and might even cause tetany in extreme cases. The increase of sodium would also mean more absorption of sodium ions as well and hence this would dilute the intravascular compartment causing hypertension. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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