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Motivation Theories in Organizational Behavior - Assignment Example

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Psychological scope of human resource explains the role of motivation and many theories exist that explains motivation.
Abraham’s Maslow theory provides that human needs are unlimited…
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Motivation Theories in Organizational Behavior
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Motivation theories in organizational behavior February 16, Motivation theories in organizational behavior
Motivation plays a significant role in influencing behavior and output in an organization. Psychological scope of human resource explains the role of motivation and many theories exist that explains motivation.
Hierarchy of needs theory
Abraham’s Maslow theory provides that human needs are unlimited and humans are never satisfied. The needs further motivate people into action with the aim attaining utility. Once a need is satisfied, however, it ceases to be a motivator and another need motivate actions. Further, the theory classifies human need into hierarchies that are satisfied in ascending order. A person will be motivated to satisfy needs at the lowest level before focus shifts to needs at the next level. The levels are physiological security, affiliation, esteem, and self-actualization needs. An employee, according to the theory, is for example motivated by need for food and shelter but these cease to be motivators once their needs are met. Job security and social ties then becomes motivators as the employee progresses in work (Koontz, 2009).
Learned needs theory
McClelland’s learnt needs theory explains that three needs, that people learn from their environments are motivators. These are need to attain desired objectives, need for interpersonal relations, and need for power. The notion that promotion can grant a person authority and connection with people from a higher circle in a profession may for example motivate an employee into hard work (Lunenburg and Ornstein, 2011).
Four drive theory
According to the theory, a person is motivated by four factors, singularly or in combination. The factors are drive to acquire, bond, learn, and defend. The drive to bond may for example motivate teamwork for interpersonal relations among team members (White, 2006).
Expectancy theory
Vroom’s expectancy theory establishes a link between goals and means of achieving the goals towards motivation. According to the theory, people realize motivation into objectives if the cost of achieving the objective is justified and if available means to the objective promises success. An employee may for example be motivated into further training towards promotion if necessary resources are worth the promotion and if the training actually promises probability of the targeted promotion (Condrey, 2010).
Equity theory
Adam’s equity theory explains motivation from input-output perspective. According to the theory, an individual is motivated if the perceived input in a venture is equivalent to perceived output. This means that a manager is motivated when he is convinced of efficiency in his efforts (Lussier and Achua, 2012).
ERG theory
Alderfer’s ERG theory explains existence of needs in a hierarchical order but that a need at a higher level can be satisfied before a need at a lower level. The theory’s levels are growth, relations, and existence and forms basis for motivation. Material needs are examples of existence needs that can motivate a person and are evident in an employee who is paid on commission. Existence of material needs such as need to purchase a house can motivate the employee (Borkowski, 2009).
Goal setting theory
Locke’s goal setting theory explains that a direct relationship exists between goal difficulty and performance and that a person’s level of dedication facilitates achievement. Setting high goals and influencing commitment is therefore an example of application of the theory to motivate performance (Lunenburg and Ornstein, 2011).
My approach to motivating employees
I motivate employees using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. I identify individual or common needs among employees and offer avenues for meeting them. I for example offers bonus on performance if I identify material needs among employees and offer promotion in cases of self-esteem needs.
References
Borkowski, N. (2009). Organizational behavior in health care. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Condrey, S. (2010). Handbook of human resource management in government. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Koontz, H. (2009). Essentials of management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Lunenburg, F. and Ornstein, A. (2011). Educational administration: Concepts and practices. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Lussier, R. and Achua, C. (2012). Leadership: Theory, application, & skill development. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
White, D. (2006). Coaching leaders: Guiding people who guide others. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Read More
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