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Management - Essay Example

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Management Name: Course: Institution: Tutor: Date: Management Introduction To establish a business enterprise, entrepreneurs need to research the market for the goods and services they intend to introduce to the market. They need to determine the market availability of their products…
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Download file to see previous pages The management theory acts as the frame work for running the business. It is essential in dealing with employees, and in understanding the business environment(Robbins et al.2008). History of management As indicated by Robbins et al. (2008, p. 29), the ancient management practices were implemented in projects such as the construction of the Great Wall of Chinaas well as the pyramids of Egypt which employed thousands of people. During the construction of the Egyptian pyramids, a single pyramid would employ more the 100000 workers for 20 years; hence, someone had to be assigned the task of organizing and controlling the people and the materials to be used. Such activities led to the study of management practices. Robbins et al. (2008, p. 29) further stated that, in 1776, Adam Smith published a book that argued the economic benefits that organizations get from practicing effective management practices such as division of labour and breaking down jobs to narrow tasks, which played a role in increasing the labor productivity, and in enhancing the skills of the workers. The other concept that has played a role in management is the industrial revolution of the18th century in the Great Britain. Industrial revolution was important because it enhanced the use of machinery for production instead of manpower. This made the production of goods more efficient by reducing the finance and time resources used for production. The tasks that were previously taken by human beings were substituted by machines which enhance both accuracy and quality. In the 19th century, there was a major step taken to enhance proper management through the development of formalized management theories which were implemented in large organizations. These were scientific management, general administrative theory, quantitative organizational behavior and contingency. The scientific management theory explains the use of scientific methods to ensure that various tasks are implemented. The scientific theory was further enhanced by Fredrick Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Taylor observed that most tasks were executed with neither application of skills nor professional standards; thus, reducing their output to a third of what was expected from a worker. To maximize the application of skills by the workers and increase the production efficiency, workers were assigned tasks according to their abilities and characteristics. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth studied on ways to avoid wastage of the body movements. The study was implemented through the selection of the right tools for the right job so as to optimize work performance. The experiments for this study were done through bricklaying, and by reducing the motions from 18 to 2, a move which proved to be more productive. The four principles of management developed by Taylor were; developing professional techniques for each component of the individual’s work, selecting and training the employees, cooperation with the employees and dividing the responsibilities amongst the management and employees (Robbins et al.2008). The general administrative theorywas developed by Henri Fayol, in an effort to enhance effective management practices by educating managers on ways to execute their tasks and in return achieve positive results. Fayol’s idea was based on creating a suitable working environment and controlling workers to achieve higher productivity. This approach is applicable in any organizational setting. This concept is important in determining ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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