This paper seeks to compare and contrast the four leader-centric approaches, which include relativism and exceptionalism, reason and amoralism, power and self-interest, traits and virtues, with the group-centric approaches, which include permission and consent, situations and circumstances, membership and moral particularity, the greater good as well as everyday leadership ethics…
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Employees expect corporate company leaders to be people of superior character and serve as role models to their employees. Trust and commitment are very important in ethical leadership. Ethical standards of leaders should not be diverse from those of the followers. Ethical behavior “…means that which is morally right, as opposed to that which is legally or procedurally right” (Kanungo, 2001, p. 258). Despite nurturing leaders out of morally imperfect humans, we still expect them to perform in an exemplary manner despite the challenges they face in their managerial endeavors. Appreciating the moral characteristics and challenges of leaders is elemental in understanding the nature of leaders. It is thus important to understand the ethical failures of leaders in order to understand the development of leadership.
Based on ethical values, motives, and assumptions, transformational and transactional leadership behaviors are considered ethical. Transformational leaders have moral philanthropic motives grounded in a deontological perspective. Transactional leaders, on the other hand, have atomistic mutually altruistic intentions based on a teleological perspective. Basically, “Transformational leadership appears to be most closely connected to deontology, while transactional leadership would seem to be related more to teleological ethics”....
Transactional leaders, on the other hand, have atomistic mutually altruistic intentions based on a teleological perspective (Burnes & By 2012; Kanungo, 2001). Basically, “Transformational leadership appears to be most closely connected to deontology, while transactional leadership would seem to be related more to teleological ethics” (Aronson, 2001, p. 245). Certain leadership traits are important for effective leadership, most leaders, particularly American leaders, lack them. These traits include the ability to inspire; vision, supportiveness, self-sacrifice, genuineness, personal responsibility; being non-egalitarian, not discriminatory, honest, and selfless. These traits are crucial and require societal acceptance for the development of effective leadership (Bertsch, 2012). Leadership Ethics Leaders tend to act as if they have a different code of ethics from that of their followers. According to Guillen and Gonzalez (2001), “Leadership goes beyond the scope of formal power and involves a continuous exchange of influence and free acceptance.” Leaders tend to justify their actions and make it appear as if the rightfulness or the wrongfulness of an action is dependent on the person doing the action (Bertsch, 2012, p.176). The main difference between the leader-centric approach and the group-centric approach lies in considering leaders as special in the leader-centric approaches and considering them as equal with their followers in the group-centric approach. Leader-centric ethics approaches tend to justify the actions of the leaders since they consider leaders as special entities who deserve special treatment on moral issues (Ciulla, 2001).On the other hand,
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Factors Affecting Customer-Centric Website Design.
It has been argued that designing a customer-centric website is so important, yet is so difficult to accomplish. Several factors could be forwarded as the cause of this challenge. This paper identifies three such factors that make web designing a particularly fluid industry: the effect of culture and gender, the growth of mobile web through tablets and smartphones and the impact of the growing influence of Web 2.0 consumers who not only consume but also produce.
He would often speak on things that he didn’t particularly care about nor have any stake in just to show that he was an outstanding rhetorician. In contrast, Plato believed that seeking the truth was the most important enterprise a person could undertake.
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The study begins with a brief overview on leadership and traits of a leader. A detailed discussion on four leader centric approaches has been stated and four group centric approaches has also been discussed, so that the readers get a clear idea about these approaches individually. A comparative analysis would be stated to highlight the contrasts.
A client centric approach is necessary in the sense that it provides a good and better strategic alternative in an environment where globalization and non-conventional means of doing the business are taking precedence over the traditional ways of doing the business.
Distributed networked operations envision combat being conducted by large numbers of diverse and small units-rather than by small numbers of generally homogenous, large units.
In theory and to a significant extent in practice in the world, distributed networked operations involve a mixed bag of naval, ground and air units, none of which is individually as powerful as a fleet, air wing or armored division.
table-2 (see appendix-2). The common United States-centric viewpoints on the foretold groups, based on my opinion and my friend’s opinion are summarized below.
Almost all of my opinions on Christian Americans are similar to my friend’s (see appendix 1 and 2). For
technology of Wireless LAN is introduced as a comparatively newer technology in the world of networks and is universally recognized as 802.11 (Wi-Fi). The protocol under discussion is said to have increased the connectivity paradigm by manifolds. The usability of the Wireless
Under such conditions, the patient can decide where and how the medical care is delivered. This is a major drift from the old-time hospital-centric medical model whereby when someone gets unwell all medical activities had to take place in a hospital. Patient-centric
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