MOTIVATION IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY [NAME OF STUDENT] [COURSE] [NAME OF TUTOR] Introduction It can be said that any human being should have some form of motivation in order to perform whatever tasks expected of him or her. Motivation in a general sense can be defined as “the reason or reasons one has for acting or behaving in a particular way” (Oxford Dictionaries 2012)…
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In other words, without motivation, all activities in the human world continue in a static manner. There would be no improvement or advancement in any area of human activity. This is also true for the hospitality industry. This paper reviews the concept of motivation in the hospitality industry and will look into the mindset of both employees and employers. In the process, the paper will review relevant theories of motivation and will apply them into the aspects mentioned above. The concept of motivation: As mentioned earlier, motivation is based on “an inclination to do something” (Baumeister &Vohs 2007, p. 115). The authors state that any motivating factor has the ability to overcome any ego issue that is present in an individual. It can be said that ego could be a factor that could come in the way of motivation. An employer, as the authors suggest could play a role in motivating an individual to overcome this ego factor. They state that needs and wants could play a crucial role in this regard. Hence theories like Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Expectancy Theory and other related theories are worth considering here in this paper. Ego is not a major factor in this regard and other theories mentioned above can be applied by managers in the hotel industry to bring about motivation within employers and employees. Motivation can also be categorized into extrinsic and intrinsic without taking into consideration the concept of ego (Vallerand 2004, 428). Extrinsic motivation is a feeling that comes from external rewards (Tileston 2004, p 4). It could be monetary and other non-monetary rewards like praise and recognition. On the other hand “Intrinsic motivation is defined as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence. When intrinsically motivated a person is moved to act for the fun or challenge entailed rather than because of external prods, pressures, or rewards” (Ryan & Deci 2000 p. 27). In other words, motivation can result in a variety of reasons and it is up to the managers and employers to make use of it to form a symbiotic relationship with the employees. Specific theories are discussed her in order to understand the concept of motivation. One of the most important in this regard is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. According to this theory, needs are based on hierarchy as can be seen by the wordings. In other words, motivation is dependant on individual feelings of achievement. The problem is to define whether an individual is motivated to perform for his or her individual needs or for a common good. According to Maslow, there are several steps that motivate individuals to perform in a certain way. They include basic and psychological needs ranging from physiological needs to self- actualization (Fiore 2004, p 62). (Maslow 2012) Physiological needs pertain to basic survival and individuals will go to any extent to survive in a particular environment (Allen & Gilmore 1998, p. 35). These needs are necessary for basic survival and hence no other considerations will be deemed necessary at this stage. A person just needs an environment for food and other basic necessities for survival. Once the physiological needs are met the next motivating factor is safety needs. In this stage, a person looks at a long term aspect of survival which pertains to the aspect of safety for
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