Summary of key findings Laird D. McLean (2005) published an article entitled “Organizational culture’s influence on creativity and innovation: A review of the literature and implications for Human Resource Development (HRD).” For this reason, McLean reviewed some literature in order to find factors pertaining to organizational culture and climate that may support or impede organizational creativity and innovation…
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McLean first presented the difference between creativity and innovation. Creativity based on the review of related literature is considered as ability, while innovation is a process. Creativity is an ability that is solely found at the individual level, while innovation is a process of implementing creative ideas within an organization. According to McLean, innovation focuses on interrelationships, interactions and dynamics among key players and components of the organization and its associated environment. Furthermore, McLean tried to comment that the notable difference between creativity and innovation could have substantial implications in HRD scholars and how they study them. At this point, McLean would try to emphasize that there must something within this difference that may potentially impact, such as either to support or impede organizational creativity and innovation that could either be found at the individual or organizational level. In relation to creativity and innovation, McLean also discussed the difference between organizational culture and organizational climate. McLean tried to point out that aside from creativity and innovation, organizational culture and organizational climate are two essential concepts that are commonly used interchangeably. However, McLean would try to convince the reader that the notable difference of these two concepts could only be realized when one has to take the point of view of identifying the difference between organizational creativity and innovation, because there is a strong association of the kind of methodology to be used in order to investigate further information. However, it is clear that the definition of organizational culture is something more broader compared to organizational climate. McLean showed that organizational culture is about assumptions, beliefs, meaning and values tantamount to the existence of an organization. On the other hand, organizational climate could be the actual output of the presence of organizational culture, because it is something that would be manifested through practices and behaviors of an organization. After defining and setting these primary concepts in the study, McLean proceeded to the review of the literature on organizational culture and creativity and innovation. As stated, there were only few studies, primarily empirical ones linked up with the area of organizational culture, creativity and innovation. This has become the starting point and the primary basis why McLean had to initiate the study. Then the entire study started to reveal the history and evolution of the literature on organizational culture and creativity and innovation. McLean found a study trying to understand and reveal the characteristics associated with mechanistic and organic organization, which in great detail would connect to the issue of creativity and innovation. However, there was a little mention about organizational culture or climate, which supports the idea of McLean that there were indeed relatively few empirical studies associated with culture, creativity and innovation applied in the context of an organization. McLean proceeded to present the major contributions of scholars who were considered prolific in the field of studying organizational culture, creativity and innovation. One primary work investigated was the study of Theresa M.
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