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Globalization and Its Effect - Annotated Bibliography Example

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The paper "Globalization and Its Effect" describes the process of globalization from its beginning and how it became the movement towards the integration of peoples, a contest between two intellectual currents attempting to define a global identity – cultural universalism and cultural particularism…
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Globalization and Its Effect
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Download file to see previous pages Whilst 19th century globalization led to nationalism, colonialism, and epistemological universalism, present-day globalization is postcolonial, challenges the nation-state, and marked by a breakdown of universalism.  Globalization, Dirlik argues, is not simply global integration, as suggested by its economistic ideologues and interpreters, but a new model of fragmentation and of comprehending the world. It is, therefore, necessary to critically consider the historical relationship between globalization as a new beginning in breaking down old hegemonies and as the ultimate victory of capitalist modernity.
He concludes that whilst globalization is best understood historically, it also has produced new ways of looking at history, and that there is a need to write world history in non-Eurocentric ways and to understand globalization from two different historical perspectives.
Ikenberry shows the linked history, present, and future questions between American hegemony and open economic markets characteristic of globalization. Whilst this is not surprising since “economic relationships always bear the imprint of powerful states”, what is admirable is how America successfully utilized its political and economic interests and the tools – building institutions, managing monetary policy, and forging security alliances – to open the world economy. Ikenberry attributes hegemonic success to political and economic leadership that allowed America to resist temptations of protectionism, colonialism, and isolationism.
Global domination and leadership, by allowing America’s political-economic partners to prosper, assured security and economic prosperity despite distractions of domestic politics and international security. This strategic interdependence amongst America’s allies, in Europe and Japan, led to winning the Cold War.
In answer, Ikenberry proposes two questions: first, how important is stable and non-competitive great power relations; and second, America’s willingness, as the world’s only superpower, to underwrite global rules and institutions. ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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