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Relevance of exchange rates in monetary policy making - Essay Example

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Monetary policy making is the act of any national monetary authority of a country to establish the size and rate of growth of money supply and, therefore, influence the interest rates in promoting a nation’s economic growth and stability…
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Relevance of exchange rates in monetary policy making
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Download file to see previous pages These actions may include increasing bank interest rates or decreasing the supply of money in the economy. The chief aims of such monetary policy are currency stability or price stability, achieving full employment and economic prosperity of a nation (Zettelmeyer & Zettelmeyer, 2003). Monetary policy rests on the correlation between interest rates of an economy and the total supply of money in the economy. It is natural that governments play a primary role in economic growth and stability through monetary policy especially in small rich economies. By creating monetary policies, central banks can influence the intensity of the supply of money on credit in the economy and, therefore, minimize extreme price fluctuations and improve economic growth. This control is made easier through clear knowledge of the monetary exchange rate that a country chooses to adopt (Jung, Choi & Jung, 2003). Relevance of exchange rates in monetary policy making Concisely, exchange rate refers to the rate at which one country’s money can be changed for another, that is, the price of one country’s currency in another country’s currency. Exchange rate is used when converting one currency to another or for engaging in foreign exchange market. The factors that influence exchange rates include political stability, inflation and interest rates. Nevertheless, exchange rate can, by itself, influence certain factors such as inflation and policy formulation and implementation (Ireland, 2008). For small economies and certain medium ones that are still very open to capital flows and trade, any changes in the value of exchange rate have a vital influence on the real economy or inflation. For successful pursuit of macro-economic stability and achievement of sustainable growth, prudent choices of exchange rate regime and appropriate policies are imperative (Ireland, 2008). The exchange rate and price stability of a nation's monetary value define its economy. Iceland, for example, although is a small country, has enjoyed a long period of stability of economic prosperity with unemployment falling to near zero level. Iceland is an ideal and extreme example of a small open economy. Iceland has a population of 300,000 with a GDP of 8.5 billion USD. Like other economies, Iceland also faces trade and economic problems such as market fluctuations and terms of trade that makes it vulnerable. However, Iceland is endowed with a huge chunk of natural resources with a highly educated labor force and well established economic policies. The paramount indicator of stern overheating of an economy is inflation and Iceland picked it (Breedon, Petursson, & Rose, 2011). However, the key to controlling inflation is good management of the exchange rate and its coordination with fiscal policy (Jung, Choi & Jung, 2003). Several available models of exchange-rate determination entail an unambiguous effect of monetary policy. According to Argy, Grauwe and Polak (1990), this is explained in terms of money aggregates on the exchange rate where any increased rate of monetary growth in one country, against the surroundings of a stable claim for money tends to decline the nominal exchange rate. Most theoretical models predict that, in the end, an increase in one country’s money growth wholly reflects in the price level with the relative increment in the latter counteracted by depreciation of the exchange rate. When implementing a monetary policy care must be taken to ensure that the taxpayers do not lose much of their money (Zettelmeyer & Zettelmeyer, 2003). In the long run, countries with moderately rapid money expansion will lean towards having high nominal interest rates, as well as high inflation. However, in short ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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